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This scroll border appears often; a slightly later and even more debased version, which incorporates large S-shaped scrolls, is sometimes known as the dollar pattern. The palette was gradually expanded to include turquoise, sage green, olive green, purple, and black.

Most of the blue and turquoise specimens are painted with flowers. The Chinese flora motifs were almost entirely replaced by tulips, poppies, carnations, roses, and hyacinths in the form of fairly symmetrical sprays springing from a single point.

Even on comparatively late examples, floral designs are sometimes stylized to the point of abstraction, suggesting that decorators might have suited their patterns to the religious susceptibilities of their customers.

An effective abstract pattern is formed from a series of overlapping scales that are usually carefully drawn see photograph. The same ground was later employed in Italy on maiolica and at the Berlin porcelain factory and may have indirectly inspired the series of wares with scale grounds made at Worcester, England. After about Iznik pottery enters its third stage. The most notable technical innovation is the use of Armenian bole sealing-wax red , a thick pigment that stands out in slight relief from the surface of the vessel.

The other great change is that tiles, which had previously been made in small numbers, became all important and remained so until the early 17th century. They were used to provide lavish decoration for the new mosques built at Constantinople by Süleyman I.

Once again potters were brought from Tabriz to begin the work. Much use is made of copper green and the new red, the colours very brilliant on the glossy white ground. The tiles, usually square, make up flowing repeating patterns or long high pictures with elaborate borders. On pottery, symmetrical sprays of flowers continued to be used as decoration until about Paintings of animals and birds are found occasionally, probably executed by Persian workmen since their resemblance to Persian wares is strong.

The rare specimens with human figures were probably painted by Greeks or Armenians for export to the West. Turkish sailing vessels sometimes appear as a decorative motif. In the 17th century the quality of Iznik wares declined, and by manufacture had ceased.

At Kütahya, pottery making had begun by and continued into the middle of the 20th century. The wares, though inferior, have some resemblance to those of Iznik with the addition of a yellow pigment. European wares made before the 19th century fall into six main categories: Lead-glazed earthenware was made from medieval times onward and owes little to outside influences. The body is generally reddish buff in colour; the glazes are yellow, brown, purplish, or green. The wares are usually vigorous in form but often crudely finished.

The body of this later lead-glazed earthenware is drab white or cream, the glaze clear and transparent like glass, and the forms precise. Stoneware is first commonly seen in Germany during the 16th century; its manufacture was developed in England during the 18th century, culminating in the unglazed ornamental jaspers and basaltes of Wedgwood.

Two other types of ware, less common than those already discussed, are slipware and lustreware. Slip was applied both as a covering over an earthenware body and in the form of decoration, for example on the sgraffito wares of Italy which owe a good deal to similar wares from Byzantium and the dotted and trailed slips of 17th- and 18th-century England.

Lustre pigments were used in Spain , where they are the principal decoration on the magnificent series of wares referred to as Hispano-Moresque; in Italy, where they supplement other modes of decoration; and much later, in England—although in the last case they are no longer artistically important. Similar attempts were made elsewhere in Italy about the same time, and manufacture is supposed to have been continued at Pisa and at Candiana, near Padua Padova.

The first production of soft porcelain on a considerable scale did not take place, however, until toward the end of the 17th century in France. In Saxony about Ehrenfried Walter von Tschirnhaus started experiments to make porcelain from clay mixed with fusible rock. Almost certainly he had made hard porcelain by the end of the century, but manufacture did not become a practical commercial proposition until the year of his death, in The factory was established at Meissen about , and the first porcelain sales of any consequence took place at the Leipzig Fair in Later, at the end of the 18th century, Josiah Spode the Second added bone ash to the hard porcelain formula to make bone china.

In ce Byzantium became the imperial capital of the Roman Empire and was renamed Constantinople. The term Byzantine , however, is applied to the period that ended in , when Constantinople was captured by the Ottoman Turks and renamed Istanbul. Since it was not a Christian custom to bury pottery with the dead, few wares survive, and chronology is difficult.

Most of the surviving wares fall into two classes: The latter is the commonest type after the 12th century. Both styles were fairly widespread and have been recovered in fragmentary form from excavations at Istanbul, and in Greece , Cyprus , and on the Crimean Peninsula. The lustre technique spread to Moorish Spain by way of Egypt , but it is impossible to say exactly when it arrived. The body of Hispano-Moresque pottery is usually of fairly coarse clay, which has burned to a pinkish buff, covered with a tin glaze containing lead in varying proportions.

The lustre, added overglaze, varies in colour from golden to a pale straw, and a coppery lustre almost invariably indicates at least a 17th century date. Many dishes were additionally painted in blue and, less often, with manganese.

Most surviving wares of the early period are dishes of various shapes. Less common are albarellos , waisted drug jars based on a Middle Eastern form. Vases based on the old Iberian Amphora but with two massive wing handles the Alhambra type are very rare.

The decoration on wares of this early period is predominantly Moorish. Fine specimens of this kind are unlikely to be later than The early designs are, for the most part, plant forms and arabesques, both the vine leaf and the bryony leaf being used.

A little later there are magnificently drawn animals in heraldic form, principally lions and eagles. Still later there are deer and antelope, which may owe something to Persian sources. Dishes with coats of arms of noble families surrounded by vine- and bryony-leaf ornament are unusually fine.

Many of them were made in Valencia and the neighbouring village of Manises for Italian families. A feature of many of the dishes is the lustre decoration on the reverse. Although often no more than a series of concentric circles, occasionally there are superb eagles and other animals found on dishes from Valencia that are even finer than the obverse designs.

In the 17th century much lustred pottery was made for the cheaper markets and for export to England. The painting is executed in a lustre pigment of deep coppery hue. While this ware is not important in comparison with the early wares, it is often decorative. Although the influence of Valencian lustre pottery on later Italian majolica is obvious, the wares of Paterna, near Valencia, were hardly less influential in the 14th century. They were decorated in green and manganese, often with motifs taken from Moorish sources; this combination of colours is to be seen in early Italian pottery from Orvieto and elsewhere.

Much tin-glazed pottery of excellent quality was made at Talavera de la Reina , in New Castile , during the 17th and 18th centuries. The palette is characteristic of much Spanish tin-glazed ware; green and manganese play a distinctive part, frequently combined with touches of orange-red and gray.

The istoriato style of Urbino see below Italy was copied here, and the Italian painter and engraver Antonio Tempesta — provided a source of inspiration for some of the painting. Alcora, in Valencia, made much faience of excellent quality during the 18th century. The cuerda seca method of making tiles followed about Tiles made by the cuenca technique had deeply impressed patterns the compartments thus formed being filled with coloured glazes.

Tiles were also decorated with lustre pigments. The early porcelain made at Buen Retiro , near Madrid , in the s, had been justly compared to that of Saint-Cloud. The quality of the ware was good, and some skillful figure modelling was done by Giuseppe Gricci , who had previously worked at Capodimonte. The pottery of Italy is extremely important not only in itself but for its subsequent influence in other European countries. Indeed, its influence may have spread even farther afield: There are two well-defined classes of Italian earthenware: Tin-glazing was introduced in the 13th century from the Middle East through the Muslim civilization in southern Spain, wares being shipped from there to Italy by Majorcan traders.

The term majolica was at first applied to this Hispano-Moresque lustreware, but in the 16th century it came to denote all tin-glazed ware. Italian majolica is principally noteworthy for its painted decoration, which excelled in technical competence anything produced in Europe since classical times.

The painting was executed in several colours on the dry but unfired tin glaze. Great skill was needed, since the surface absorbed the colour as blotting paper absorbs ink, and erasures were therefore impossible. The best wares were given a final coating of clear lead glaze called coperta. The range of colours was comparatively limited: Lustre pigments were introduced from Spain.

The lustre of Italian wares is often the golden-yellow colour derived from silver, and sometimes it is ruby, suggesting the use of gold. The silver lustre often developed a nacreous effect known as mother-of-pearl madre perle.

The forms of majolica are few and fairly simple. Generally, they were dictated by the need for a surface on which the painter could exercise his skill; thus, dishes form the greater part of surviving wares. It is doubtful whether most majolica was ever intended for general use.

Dishes were displayed on sideboards and buffets more often than they were placed on the table. Gaily coloured drug jars were a fashionable decoration for pharmacies and include the albarello shape, copied from Spain, for dry drugs, and a spouted jar for wet drugs.

Ewers pitchers with a trefoil leafshaped spout, derived from the Greek oenochoe , were made, as well as the massive jars representative of Florentine work of the 15th century. The earliest majolica, beginning in the 13th century, is decorated in green and manganese purple in imitation of the Spanish Paterna ware.

Much work of this kind was done at Orvieto, in Umbria, where the characteristic form was a jug with a disproportionately large pouring lip. Orvieto ware has almost become a generic term for anything in this style, although similar vessels were made at Florence, Siena, and elsewhere.

It was current in the 14th century and continued in the 15th century, when other colours were added to the palette. The decorative motifs—masks, animals, and foliage—are Gothic , with some traces of Eastern influence. From Florence came a series of wares painted in a dark, inky, impasto or very thick blue. These, too, have Gothic ornament, particularly oak leaves, which came into use sometime before Heraldic animals also appear on some specimens. This kind of decoration was obviously inspired by Spanish pottery, and a few examples are hardly more than copies.

Soon after , Florentine production was concentrated in the castle of Caffagiolo , in Tuscany , and came under the patronage of the Medici family , whose arms appear frequently. A notable addition to the palette here was a bright red pigment, a most difficult colour to attain and one not often used. Gothic ornament was gradually displaced by classical motifs, such as grotesques, trophies, and the like, which, early in the 16th century, themselves gave way to the istoriato style.

This style, no doubt inspired by the achievements of contemporary painting, imitates the easel picture closely. Its realism, including the use of perspective, is quite unlike any previous ceramic decoration. The subjects were often classical, but biblical subjects, some taken from the woodcuts of Bernard Salomon c.

Majolica was often called Raffaelle ware, a tribute to the influence of the painter Raphael — , although he, in fact, never made any designs for pottery. In particular the majolica painters copied his grotteschi grotesques , motifs adapted from those rediscovered in the grottoes of the Golden House of Nero soon after and so-called in consequence.

They are usually fantastic combinations of human, animal, and plant forms. The works of Albrecht Dürer and Andrea Mantegna were also borrowed, often through engravings made by Jacopo Ripanda Jacopa da Bologna and Marcantonio Raimondi ; some examples are almost exact copies, others are freer interpretations.

The paintings sometimes occupy the centre of the dish with a border of formal ornament surrounding them, but in many instances, notably those from Urbino, they cover the entire surface.

It is often impossible to regard the pottery body as anything more than a support for the painting, its pictorial or narrative subject having been executed with little or no consideration for the nature of the object it decorated. Although pottery decoration is rarely successful unless it is designed to enhance , or at least not to detract from, the shape of the body, an exception must be made for some of these colourful wares: The istoriato style probably developed at Faenza Emilia in about One of the earliest and most important centres of production, it had been manufacturing majolica since before Almost as early are some examples from Caffagiolo.

Castel Durante adopted the same style, and it is particularly associated with the name of Nicola Pellipario died c. He also painted grotesques similar to those of Deruta, in Umbria, which are rather more stylized than the grotesques introduced later in the 16th century at Urbino that are humourous and full of movement.

The former are often used as a surround to an interior medallion in the istoriato style. Urbino was probably the largest centre for the manufacture of majolica at the time. Among the early factories, that of Deruta wich may have been under the patronage of Cesare Borgia is of considerable importance. Majolica has been made there from medieval times, and manufacture continues in the midth century. Deruta potters about were the first to use lustre pigment, which was of a pale-yellow tone, and they also adopted the Spanish practice of painting designs on the reverse of dishes.

They also often covered only the obverse with tin glaze and applied a lead glaze to the reverse—again, a typically Spanish practice. The best work was done before The use of lustre pigments at Gubbio , in Umbria, probably started soon after it began at Deruta. The quality of the work was such that majolica was sent from Castel Durante, Faenza, and even from Deruta itself for this additional embellishment.

Majolica was manufactured in Venice between the 16th and 18th centuries. As might be expected in an important seaport with worldwide trade, its majolica often shows Eastern influence. Of the later potteries, that of Castelli, near Naples , did excellent work from the 16th century onward, although its later wares tend to become pedestrian. Istoriato painting was revived there in the 17th century in a palette paler in tone than that of early work in this style.

Much majolica survives from Savona , in Liguria, a good deal of which is painted in blue in Oriental styles. Although hardly to be classified as pottery, sculptured reliefs were made by Luca della Robbia died in terra cotta and covered with majolica glazes. Sgraffito wares are comparatively rare.

The technique was derived from Byzantine sources by way of Cyprus which was under Venetian rule from to Manufacture was confined to northern Italy, the largest centre being at Bologna.

The body of the sgraffito ware was covered with a slip of contrasting colour, the decoration then being scratched through to the body beneath and the whole covered with a lead glaze, which has a yellowish tone. Often the incised designs were first embellished with underglaze colours blue, green, purple, brown, and yellow that tended to run during firing. This technique died out finally at the end of the 18th century, but some important work of the kind was done in the late 15th and 16th centuries.

There are only about 50 surviving pieces of the soft-paste porcelain made in Florence at the time of the Medicis, and little is known of its actual production. The earliest definite date for manufacture is Painting is nearly always in blue with manganese outlines. Most decorative motifs are derived from China, Persia , or Turkey, and the forms usually copy those of Urbino majolica.

It made fine hard porcelain the body of which has a slightly smoky colour. The style is Baroque, and the palette is notable for a brownish red.

Another factory, that of Geminiano Cozzi , started in , was the one where most Venetian porcelain was made. Coffeepots in the Baroque style, sometimes painted with coats of arms, are characteristic of the early period. Equally fine figures were made during the 18th century. Porcelain with figure subjects in low relief was made only at Doccia, although it has been repeatedly and erroneously attributed to the soft-porcelain factory established in the royal palace of Capodimonte by Charles III of Naples in As well as extremely well painted service ware, Capodimonte is renowned for its figures.

The medieval pottery of France is difficult to date and classify with accuracy, but lead glaze was in common use by the 13th century at the latest. Bernard Palissy began to experiment with coloured glazes about and, after much difficulty, succeeded in producing his rustic wares in For the most part these are large dishes made with wavy centres intended to represent a stream, with realistically modelled lizards, snakes, and insects such as dragonflies grouped thereon.

They are decorated on the obverse with blue, green, manganese purple, and brown glazes of excellent quality, while the back is covered with a glaze mottled in brown, blue, and purple. Palissy later turned his attention to classical and biblical subjects, which he molded in relief. After his death in , work in his style was continued at the Avon pottery, near Fontainebleau.

The body is ivory white and covered with a thin glaze. Before firing, designs were impressed into the clay with metal stamps like those used by bookbinders , and the impressions were then filled with slips of contrasting colours.

This technique resembles the mishima technique of decoration in Korea see below Korea. The technique and the designs of Italian majolica influenced the development, in the early 16th century, of French faience. There were Italian potters at Lyon in , and, by the end of the 16th century, painting in the manner of Urbino was well established there.

Faience was also made at Rouen , probably as early as , and at Nevers toward the end of the 16th century. A new factory, established at Rouen about by Edme Poterat , introduced a decoration of lambrequins , ornament with a jagged or scalloped outline based on drapery, scrollwork, lacework ornament, and the like. Lambrequins were extremely popular and were copied at other porcelain and faience factories. The faience of Nevers, too, is extremely important and shows the Baroque style at its best.

In the second half of the 17th century the porcelain of both China and Japan became increasingly well known in Europe, and many designs were borrowed from Chinese sources by potters at Nevers and elsewhere.

During the early period frequent use was made of the engravings of Antonio Tempesta — as well as biblical scenes. These designs usually include grotesques, baldacchini canopies , vases of flowers, and the like, linked together by strapwork in a typically Baroque manner. In , when Louis XIV and his court melted down their silver to help pay for the War of the Spanish Succession , the nobility looked for a less expensive medium to replace it.

In consequence, faience gained in popularity and importance. A great deal was manufactured in the region of Marseilles, the factory of the Veuve Perrin being particularly noted for overglaze painting in the Rococo style. Perhaps the most influential factory was that of Strasbourg , in Alsace which had officially become part of France in , founded by C. The wares—painted in blue, in other faience colours, and in overglaze colours —were much copied elsewhere.

Overglaze colours were introduced about , their first recorded use in France. For the first use in Europe, see below Germany and Austria. A characteristic copper green was also used. Lanz, who also worked in porcelain here and at Frankenthal, are to be seen. Much work was done in the fashionable Rococo style, including objects, such as clock cases and wall cisterns, and tureens in the form of fruit and vegetables.

Both faience and porcelain in a variety of decorative forms were used for the banqueting table. Such table decoration, which in the 17th century had been supplied by confectioners who worked in sugar , had become very fashionable in Europe.

The wares of Niderviller , in Lorraine , were much influenced by those of Strasbourg. Faience was made at Tournai now in Belgium and at Brussels during the 17th century. Their styles were mainly derivative, but Brussels made some excellent tureens in forms such as poultry, vegetables, and fruits during the Rococo period. After most French pottery factories concentrated on the manufacture of faience fine creamware. A factory at Saint-Cloud , founded by Pierre Chicaneau in the s, made faience and a soft-paste porcelain that were yellowish in tone and heavily potted.

Much use was made of molded decoration, which included sprigs of prunus blossom copied from the blanc de Chine of Tehua see below China: Particularly common was a molded pattern of overlapping scales.

The early painted wares were decorated in underglaze blue with typically Baroque patterns, including the lambrequins introduced at Rouen. Polychrome specimens, some of which were decorated in the style of Kakiemon , see below Japan: Edo period , date from about At Chantilly , the first soft-paste porcelain was decorated almost entirely in the Kakiemon style, and the body was invariably covered with a tin-glaze.

The Japanese period ended about For some years thereafter simple Meissen styles were copied, in particular the German flowers. In an edict in support of the newly established factory at Vincennes forbade all other factories to manufacture porcelain or to decorate faience in polychrome; much Chantilly porcelain of the later period, therefore, is creamy white, decorated only with slight flower sprigs in blue underglaze.

A transparent glaze was introduced in and replaced the very unusual practice of covering porcelain with a tin-glaze. The early productions were in the manner of Saint-Cloud and Rouen.

Later, some excellent flower painting was done, and figure modelling was excellent in quality. Small porcelain boxes from Mennecy, often in the form of animals, are much sought in the 20th century. Louis XV was a large shareholder in the original company and the factory eventually passed to the crown in It became state property in , and has so remained.

The factory did not succeed in its attempts to make a practicable soft-paste porcelain until Much of the work at Vincennes consisted of naturalistic flowers with bronze stalks and leaves, sometimes in vases elaborately mounted in gilt bronze by the court goldsmith, Claude Thomas Duplessis, and others.

Meissen was also copied for a short period, but the factory soon evolved its own style, which remained partly dependent on the use of high quality gilt-bronze mounts. A few glazed and painted figures were made, but these gave place in to figures of biscuit porcelain. Later, some excellent work in this medium was done by the sculptors Augustin Pajou and Louis-Simon Boizot.

These panels were surrounded by rich and elaborate raised gilding, which was engraved and chased tooled. The most usual ground colours were a dark underglaze blue gros bleu and a brighter, overglaze bleu de Roi ; also used were turquoise blue, yellow, green, and rose Pompadour often miscalled rose du Barry in England. The soft-paste body was of superb quality; and, because the extremely fusible glaze partly remelted in the enamelling kiln, the colours sank into the glaze in a way hardly seen elsewhere.

They were eventually found, after a prolonged search, at Saint-Yrieix-la-Perche , near Limoges , in The new body was first manufactured soon after , although for a number of years it was only used for biscuit figures.

Later, it was employed for dishes and vases decorated in a severe but luxurious classical style. In the manufacture of soft porcelain was discontinued altogether. A large number of smaller factories making hard porcelain sprang up, chiefly in and around Paris, in the second half of the 18th century.

A number of provincial factories were also engaged in the same manufacture. The Tournai factory , in Belgium , which began to make porcelain in , enjoyed the patronage of the empress of Austria, Maria Theresa. While Germany is principally noted for its superb porcelain, the stoneware of the Rhineland is no less noteworthy. A great deal of faience was also made, though this was less important.

The earliest distinctive type of ware made in markedly Germanic style c. Originally the term referred to tiles, molded in relief and usually covered with a green glaze, which were built up into the large and elaborate stoves needed to make mid-European winters tolerable.

Jugs and other vessels made by these stove makers, however, came to be called Hafner ware by extension when their manufacture began about the midth century. The work of Paul Preuning of Nürnberg is an example of this kind of ware.

In Silesian Hafner ware, on the other hand, the design is cut out with a knife, the incisions preventing the coloured glazes from mingling. The earliest German stove tiles are lead glazed. Tin glazes came into use about After these beginnings, German pottery developed in two distinct classes: The stoneware Steinzeug came mainly from the Rhineland and, in particular from Cologne, Westerwald, Siegburg, and Raeren the latter now in Belgium. Manufacture probably began in Cologne about The body of the stoneware is extremely hard and varies from almost white Siegburg to bluish gray Westerwald ; a brown glaze over a drab body is also to be seen Raeren.

The surface is glazed with salt —no more than a smear glaze, pitted slightly, like orange peel. A smooth, though still very thin, glaze was achieved by mixing the salt with red lead. In England, where they were imported in large quantities, they were also known as graybeards.

The term tigerware was also used for the mottled brown glaze over a grayish body. Some of the earliest German stoneware is notable for its remarkably fine relief decoration in the Gothic style.

Oak-leaf and vine-leaf motifs were common, as were coats of arms on medallions. The applied relief and stamped decoration was, at times, most elaborate, and the thin glaze lent it additional sharpness and clarity.

Reliefs of biblical subjects appear on tall, tapering tankards Schnellen , which were provided with pewter or silver mounts. The Doppelfrieskrüge were jugs with two molded friezes usually portraying classical subjects around the middle. They and the tankards were made in Raeren brownware by Jan Emens, surnamed Mennicken, in the last quarter of the 16th century. Emens also worked in the gray body that was used at Raeren at the turn of the century, employing blue pigment to enhance the decoration.

At a later date, blue and manganese pigments were used together, and this practice continued throughout the 17th century. Figures were sometimes set in a frame reminiscent of Gothic architectural arcades, and inscriptions of one kind or another are fairly frequent. The style of the stonewares gradually fell into line with the prevailing Baroque style, particularly toward the end of the 17th century.

At Kreussen , in Bavaria , a grayish-red stoneware was covered with a brown glaze, and the molded decoration was often crudely picked out with opaque overglaze colours that had a tin-glazed base.

The earliest dated specimen is , which was the first time overglaze colours had been used on pottery in Europe. The technique, learned from Bohemian glass enamellers, was to have some influence in France as well as in Germany. An extremely important type of stoneware was first made shortly before at a factory at Meissen that was under the patronage of Augustus the Strong , elector of Saxony and king of Poland.

It was discovered by E. Böttger — during their researches into the secret of porcelain manufacture. It usually varies from red to dark brown and is the hardest substance of its kind known. Decoration is usually effected by means of applied reliefs, although the black-glazed specimens were sometimes decorated with lacquer colours, as well as with gold and silver.

Silvering was not uncommon and was also practiced in other German centres during the early part of the 18th century on both stoneware and porcelain. A particular feature of Meissen stoneware is the incised decoration done by lapidaries on the engraving wheel.

Many specimens were engraved with coats of arms, and grinding into facets the Muscheln pattern was also practiced. The same methods were used to give a plain surface a high polish. Metal mounts, common Rhenish stoneware, also were sometimes accompanied by insetting precious and semiprecious stones. Because of the vogue for porcelain, stoneware manufacture declined and was finally abandoned about Faience factories were so numerous that it is only possible to mention the most important of them.

Perhaps the earliest tin-glazed wares other than stove tiles are the jugs in the form of owls with detachable heads to be used as cups that came from Brixen Bressanone , in the Tirol. Their shape and style no doubt inspired the later owl and bear jugs made in England during the 18th century. These owl jugs Eulenkrüge were, at first, used as prizes in archery contests and were sometimes repeated in Rhenish stoneware.

The first manufacture of faience on a considerable scale took place at Nürnberg, and some dishes in the Italian style still survive. Much more is known, however, of the productions of Kreussen, which is chiefly of interest for its blue-and-white faience jugs.

The outline of flowers painted in blue is almost cross-sectional in style and terminates in a small spiral—hence the name spiral family.

A factory of Hanau , near Frankfurt am Main, was started in and remained in operation until Many of the early wares were decorated with Chinese motifs.

A type of jug with a long narrow neck, the Enghalskrug , was made in Hanau. Some have a globular body sometimes copied in China and Japan in blue painted porcelain ; others, a spirally fluted body and a twisted handle. Pewter or, less often, silver covers were common. The painting includes coats of arms, landscapes, and biblical subjects.

Tea meetings are now only performed as reconstructions in folkloric ensembles; they were evenings of speech-making, feasting and the singing of hymns and parlor songs. The David and Goliath play features music, dance, theater, and dramatic and witty speeches, all based on the biblical story of David and Goliath.

The Afro-Virgin Islander bamboula tradition is now only performed in a reconstructed fashion. It was a style of song, drumming and folk dance, performed by two drummers on one drum; one drum used his hands and heel, and the other two sticks. African-styled dance and group song with refrains were a constant part, with verses frequently improvised by a soloist.

Traditional Virgin Islander folk music festivals were performed until the late s. Masquerading mas'ing was an important tradition, and consisted of groups wearing theme-based costumes, and playing melodies and rhythms that suggest their identity. Instruments included a fife -and-drum ensemble that featured a cane fife, double-headed bass drum known as keg or boom-boom and snare drum known as kettledrum. The Virgin Islander cariso tradition is extinct in a true folk context, but remains an important symbol of Crucian culture, and is performed by folkloric ensembles for educational and holiday events.

Carisos were still performed as late as the s by several elderly singers, most famously Ethel McIntosh and Leona Watson. Though similar in some ways to quelbe, cariso is more African in its melodic style, frequent sustained syllables and traditional performance context, namely women singing in groups in call-and-response. Carisos , like quelbe, commemorate historical events, and spread news and opinions about important issues. Clear the road, all you clear the road, Clear the road, let the slave them pass, We a go for a-we freedom.

Hardship in the morning, suffering at night. No one ever help us, it is only Father Ryan. They bring we ya from Africa, that we bornin' land; Bring we ya in slavery, in the land of Santa Cruz. In the early s, small groups left the small French island of St. Barths and traveled to St. Thomas, VI in search of work. Thomas as "Frenchies" many played instruments such as the accordion, harmonica, ukulele and guitar and made instruments such as the "Weero or Guiros" out of dried squash from their farms and cowbells from their livestock.

He had his own weekend show at the "Luau Club" on St. Thomas where he sang and played guitar for military personnel, tourists and locals alike. Because he lived on the peak of the island, he was once introduced as "The King of the Mountain" and the "Mountain Kings" band was later formed.

These bands continued to have this unique sound as a result of this mix of cultures. Shawn Querrard , lead singer of the Obsession band and son of Cyril Querrard, is known for his song writing ability. Songs like "Gypsy Girl", "Cherry tree", "Chances", "I had to let you know" and "Music Medicine" has proven longevity and popularity in many of the Caribbean islands, particularly those of French influence.

Until the midth century, the Virgin Islands were largely culturally isolated from international popular music. In the s, a growth in tourism caused an influx of immigrants to fill the service positions the tourism industry created. These immigrants brought with them many styles of popular music, which were popularized by the growth of mass media in the islands, including television and radio. By the s, Virgin Islands was home to many imported styles, especially salsa, reggae , soca , merengue and rock.

Jazz , Western classical music and musical theater , along with international pop stars, were common mainstream interests, while the islands' youth formed bands and dance troupes that played styles popular across the Caribbean, mainly Latin, Jamaican and Trinidadian influenced, such as salsa, reggae, steelpan and soca. The large Puerto Rican population in the Virgin Islands kept popular music from Puerto Rico and the Dominican Republic a major part of the islands' industry.

The first calypso star from the Virgin Islands was Lloyd "Prince" Thomas , who moved to New York City in the mids and continued performing for some twenty years. The remaining major early calypso band from the Virgin Islands was the Fabulous McClevertys , who toured widely across the East Coast of the United States at the height of the calypso craze in the late s. Another popular Virgin Islands calypsonian is Irvin "Brownie" Brown , who has hosted the islands' Carnival and has been a leading singer, radio entertainer, MC and drummer for many years.

Thomas, he learned the timbales as a young man, and joined his uncle's hotel band in or The band soon began performing in Florida and elsewhere, and Brownie became known as a calypso singer while also learning bongos, congas and a trap set.

Brownie's return to St. In the s through present day Milo and the Kings Emile Francis - music director kept Latin music alive, especially on St. Present day Milo's Kings sometimes attempt to honor Milo with Salsa.

The Virgin Islands has been home to a number of well-known soca bands. Among the oldest and most respected are: The original "Jam Band" slowed up with the death of the band's main front man "Nick 'Daddy' Friday" who died in The Enforcements band hailed out of Monbijou, St. Croix many members branched out to form different bands. It demonstrated the full use of the drum machines, electronic keyboards, vocals, and a bass line working together to set a new standard for Caribbean Music.

Erst seine gute Freundin Isabel Varell gab ihm den letzten Schubs, sich doch selbst einmal als Sänger zu versuchen. Seine Musik, ein Mix aus modernem Schlager und Popmusik, kam direkt super an, sodass eine eigene Tour folgte. Und auf der Bühne stehen und Publikum unterhalten, das konnte Sascha Heyna schon immer gut. Sascha Heyna dachte vielleicht schon als kleiner Bub: Geboren wurde Sascha Heyna am Juni in Roth.

In seinen Berufsanfängen spielte die Musik noch eher eine untergeordnete Rolle. Daraus resultierend folgten Praktika und Volontariate bei Radiosendern wie z. Den Sprung zum freien Mitarbeiter schaffte er im Mai , als er beim Regionalsender Radio 7 melody in Biberach anfing. Es reihten sich weitere Volontariate u.

Die Karriereschritte wiesen schnell den ersehnten Erfolg auf. Inhalt seiner Reportage war der französische Magier Dani Lary. Einen weiteren Sprung in die Medienwelt machte der sympathische junge Mann bereits einen Monat später, als er für die bekannte Auslandskorrespondentin Antonia Rados im Medienbüro Liersch in Paris arbeitete. Im Jahre begann der in Köln lebende Heyna, sich in einem neuen Berufsfeld auszuprobieren.

Diese Tätigkeit macht sich an anderen Stellen bemerkbar, wie man auf seiner Facebook-Seite liest. Wir freuen uns, Dich auf unserer Fanseite begrüssen zu dürfen! Eine Begegnung mit der wundervollen Sängerin Isabel Varell sollte ein Schicksalsmoment werden und sein Leben um einen weiteren beruflichen Aspekt bereichern.

Er ging im Oktober damit an den Start und griff mit seiner Mischung aus Pop und Schlager nach den Sternen, und nicht nur das.

Er erfüllte sich selbst einen lang gehegten Wunsch. Während Heyna noch immer nicht ganz so präsent in den Rundfunksendern zu hören ist, wissen seine Fans ganz genau, was sie an ihrem Heyna haben. Die Fans suchen seine Nähe, und er schreckt davor auch nicht zurück. Und nicht zuletzt konnte Heyna gerade bei seinem Verkaufsender seine erste CD präsentieren und siehe da: Von der Ignoranz der öffentlich-rechtlichen Schlagersender lässt sich der stets fröhlich wirkende Heyna nicht unterkriegen.

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