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Mixes with all fl. Computational Fluid Dynamics to predict quantitatively: Its name is an acronym for Parabolic Hyperbolic Or Elliptic Numerical Integration Code Series, wherein "parabolic", "hyperbolic" and "elliptic" are the words which mathematicians use to distinguish the underlying equations. Many, but surprisingly not all e.

The topics discussed are: Relational Data Input Multiply-shared space: These, which are designed for particular classes of would-be flow simulators, are designed to provide their users with just what they need and no more, thereby enabling persons without specific CFD expertise to benefit from CFD.

The input file is library Case z Click here in order to inspect it. The following example shows a small fraction of the PLANT-generated Fortran coding for the just-mentioned heat-exchanger simulation.

Here for example is what the user enters into the input-data file when he or she wishes to set linearised momentum sources which depend on: LINE The formulae following the "is" can have almost unlimited complexity. Once imported, the objects can be moved, stretched, rotated, duplicated, grouped, given, attributes, hidden, deleted, etc.

By default, after the objects have been placed in the desired positions, the grid adjusts itself to fit them optimally. This 'something special' is PARSOL, which does away with the 'staircase-like' appearance and behaviour sometimes exhibited by other codes.

An example of flow though an array of louvres is shown here: The following simulations of laminar flow around an airfoil suggest that they are: Until then, it had been restricted to creating single-instance input files. However, the introduction of the 'protected mode' of operation has allowed it to handle 'relational' input data.

What this means has been explained here. The following simulation of smoke movement in a long tunnel, with a million-node grid, for example, was performed in this way, long ago, on a lap-top computer. However, if fluid-flow, solid-stress and thermal interactions are all of significance, PHOENICS is the only computer code which can handle them all simultaneously. This is illustrated in the following "multi-physics" example, wherein vectors in the fluid region represent flow velocity , whereas those in the region occupied by solid represent displacement , from which, of course, stress and strain may be deduced.

For example, if flow between parallel plates is in question, and the Nikuradze formula for effective viscosity is to be used, the former is the distance from the nearer wall, and the second is the distance of one plate from the other. Other turbulence models, e. Below is a contour plot of the vertical-direction radiation flux, computed by way of IMMERSOL, for the same case as was mentioned above in respect of solid stress. The already-mentioned LVEL model is one; and it is perhaps the only model which provides a satisfactory compromise between physical realism and computational economy for flows in spaces 'cluttered' with solid objects, when the Reynolds number is not abnormally high.

It computes "probability-density functions" PDFs such as that reproduced on the left-hand side of the diagram below. All competitive codes, it appears, used the "presumed-PDF" method. In other words, they make guesses rather than calculations. The data-input files corresponding to a tiny fraction but still several thousand of these have been included with each delivered PHOENICS package, in the form of an input-file library.

One of the methods which can be adopted by users faced with a new simulation problem is therefore to search through the library for files which solve problems akin to their own, one of which can be adopted as the starting point for the new study.

Some others will be mentioned in the present document. This sub-division allows functions 1 and 3 , say, to be performed on the user's home computer, while the power-hungry function 2 is carried out remotely. It is the Q1 file with which the user has most to do, whether it is: However it is written, the content of the Q1 file is what dictates how the flow-simulating calculation will proceed. CHAM has however also provided, for the convenience of users, other means of activating the programs, either individually or in sequence.

There are other modules which, in this overview document, it is appropriate to mention only in passing. ShapeMaker , which facilitates the creation of faceted objects, around which flow can be computed, and which can also be displayed visually in the "Virtual-Reality interface"; AC3D , which is a third-party 3D modeler program, bundled with PHOENICS, which can also create faceted objects for the"Virtual-Reality interface"; DatMaker , a utility which creates.

Therefore the following account is provided. The original purpose of options was to enable purchasers of PHOENICS licences to reduce their expenditure by taking the "core"; but none, or few, of the options. Nowadays all options are supplied always.

The names of the options are: As far as the coding is concerned, these names do indicate where the relevant Fortran files are to be found. However the correspondence between the option names and the contents of the input files is much less direct, for the simple reason that practically-interesting flow simulations often involve several "optional" features, for example two-phase flow and combustion and body-fitted coordinates.

Modes of operation 4. The following remarks, which are intended to facilitate the proper choice for the problem in hand, are organised under the headings: The command mode is appropriate for what might be called "production runs", i.

This mode is preferred by users who, perhaps having spent some day-time hours preparing a series of Q1s, wish to have the runs executed overnight, possibly by way of the PHOENICS "multi-run" facility. CHAM's quality-control procedures, for example, entail the performance of many hundreds of such "test-battery runs" each night, followed by comparison of the results with those which are expected, so as to detect whether any change made to the software has had an inadvertent consequence.

However, newcomers to PHOENICS may also wish to use the command mode at the start, confining themselves to executing ready-to-run cases, or 'active demos' via the Commander or Environment. The command mode is also appropriate when the COSP constant-optimising procedure is in use; for this involves running the EARTH solver module in perpetuum mobile mode, until the sought-for goal has been attained. Many users, especially those having months or years of experience, therefore prefer to take full control of the calculation by writing the Q1 for themselves.

However, even new or infrequent users, who are likely to prefer one of the interactive modes of operation, may like to know that these modes are there only to make Q1-writing easy. The merits of the Q1-editing mode of operation are: The disadvantage, of course, is that knowledge of PIL is needed; and this can be only gradually acquired. However, those who intend to become serious long-term users of PHOENICS, and to exploit more than the most superficial of its flow-simulating capabilities, should recognise that they may need to master at least the rudiments of PIL; for the VR Editor can not do everything for them.

There also exist some PIL tutorials. It may be remarked that the Q1-editing mode can also control the subsequent running of PHOTON; for this is so programmed that, if there exists in the local directory a file called "u" or "U", it will take instructions from it. Then, if that file contains simply the line: The VR-Viewer can also use such Q1 files as macros to display a similar sequence of images. The relevant commands are txt. The new statements, if they contain no errors, are then accepted as augmenting or replacing the existing statements; and they are added to the end of the Q1 file.

If the new statements infringe the rules of PIL in some way, they are rejected; then an explanation of the reason for rejection appears on the screen.

However most users nowadays prefer to use a stand-alone text editor for creating all but the simplest Q1s. PHOTON also has the facility to record the user's actions in a pholog file, which can be later hand-edited and re-named as a u macro.

Similarly, the VR-Viewer can save a macro file which can then be used to re-create the same image from another data set. These facilities are valuable because of their person-time-saving potential. Interacting with a graphical-display package is often enjoyable; but, since humans cost more than computers, it can be the most expensive part of a CFD-using operation. This mode can be entered: The advantage of using this mode is that some settings are made by simple mouse-clicks, and others by typing numbers into boxes; so it can be used by those who have no knowledge of the nature or meaning of PIL variables or the syntax of the statements which set their values.

The disadvantage is, as already mentioned, that only a sub-set of the desirable PIL settings can be made in this way; and moreover: The use of this mode of problem specification is described in TR , for beginners and in TR , for more advanced users. This is convenient for users who do not remember, or have never learned, what are the commands which PHOTON otherwise needs.

The VR-Viewer, which is the alternative results-display module, and which has the merit of giving the flow domain an appearance which is wholly compatible with that presented by the VR-Editor, can be operated in menu mode, or it can read commands from a macro file. Thereafter the file is compiled, the new EARTH executable built, and the run executed, without further user intervention. Below is shown an example of residential buildings displayed in the VR-Editor. However some users prefer to use a third-party grid-generation package.

It is for this reason that section 4 of the document has been provided.

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