Thank you for registering
This remained the case until the 19th century. In , all special tolls were abolished, and, in , the poll tax was removed. They were still restricted to Endingen and Lengnau until 7 May , when their right to move and reside freely within the canton of Aargau was granted. On 24 September , the Swiss Federal Council granted them full political rights within Aargau, as well as broad business rights; however the majority Christian population did not abide by these new liberal laws fully.
The time of saw the canton government voting to grant suffrage in all local rights and to give their communities autonomy. Before the law was enacted, it was repealed due to vocal opposition led by the Ultramonte Party.
However, they did not receive all of the rights in Endingen and Lengn until a resolution of the Grand Council , on 15 May , granted citizens' rights to the members of the Jewish communities of those places, giving them charters under the names of New Endingen and New Lengnau.
As the island was repeatedly flooded and devastated, in the Surbtal Jews asked the Tagsatzung to establish the Endingen cemetery in the vicinity of their communities. The capital of the canton is Aarau , which is located on its western border, on the Aare. The canton borders Germany Baden-Württemberg to the north, the Rhine forming the border. It contains both large rivers, the Aare and the Reuss. The canton of Aargau is one of the least mountainous Swiss cantons, forming part of a great table-land , to the north of the Alps and the east of the Jura , above which rise low hills.
The surface of the country is beautifully diversified, undulating tracts and well-wooded hills  alternating with fertile valleys watered mainly by the Aare and its tributaries. The valleys alternate with pleasant hills, most of which are full of woods. It contains the famous hot sulphur springs of Baden and Schinznach-Bad , while at Rheinfelden there are very extensive saline springs.
Just below Brugg the Reuss and the Limmat join the Aar, while around Brugg are the ruined castle of Habsburg , the old convent of Königsfelden with fine painted medieval glass and the remains of the Roman settlement of Vindonissa Windisch. Fahr Monastery forms a small exclave of the canton, otherwise surrounded by the canton of Zürich , and since is part of the Aargau municipality of Würenlos.
The most recent change in district boundaries occurred in when Hottwil transferred from Brugg to Laufenburg, following its merger with other municipalities, all of which were in Laufenburg.
There are as of municipalities in the canton of Aargau. As with most Swiss cantons there has been a trend since the early s for municipalities to merge, though mergers in Aargau have so far been less radical than in other cantons.
The blazon of the coat of arms is Per pale, dexter: The flag and arms of Aargau date to and are an original design by Samuel Ringier-Seelmatter; the current official design, specifying the stars as five-pointed, dates to Aargau has a population as of December [update] of , Migration accounted for 8.
There are 4, people who speak French and people who speak Romansh. Of the population in the canton, , or about There were , or As of [update] , children and teenagers 0—19 years old make up As of [update] , there were , people who were single and never married in the canton.
There were , married individuals, 27, widows or widowers and 27, individuals who are divorced. As of [update] , there were , private households in the canton, and an average of 2. As of [update] , the construction rate of new housing units was 6. The majority of the population is centered on one of three areas: The historical population is given in the following chart: In the federal election , the most popular party was the SVP which received The SVP received about the same percentage of the vote as they did in the Federal election The SPS retained about the same popularity From the census [update] , , or Of the rest of the population, there were 11, members of an Orthodox church or about 2.
There were individuals or about 0. There were 1, individuals who were Buddhist , 2, individuals who were Hindu and individuals who belonged to another church.
In Aargau about , or Of the 70, who completed tertiary schooling, As of [update] , there were 11, people employed in the primary economic sector and about 3, businesses involved in this sector. In [update] the total number of full-time equivalent jobs was , The number of jobs in the primary sector was 7,, of which 6, were in agriculture, were in forestry or lumber production and 18 were in fishing or fisheries.
The number of jobs in the secondary sector was 90, of which 64, or The number of jobs in the tertiary sector was , In the tertiary sector; 38, or Of the working population, The farmland of the canton of Aargau is some of the most fertile in Switzerland. Dairy farming , cereal and fruit farming are among the canton's main economic activities.
Additionally, the many rivers supply enough water for numerous hydroelectric power plants throughout the canton. The canton of Aargau is often called "the energy canton". A significant number of people commute into the financial center of the city of Zürich , which is just across the cantonal border. As such the per capita cantonal income in is 49, CHF. Tourism is significant, particularly for the hot springs at Baden and Schinznach-Bad , the ancient castles, the landscape, and the many old museums in the canton.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Thereafter, the Habsburg lands were open to the taking. Retrieved 17 December Swiss Federal Statistical Office. The Columbia-Viking Desk Encyclopedia 3rd ed. The Columbia Gazetteer of the World. Neuenschwander, Eva Meret; Schneider, Jürg, eds. Schweiz mit Liechtenstein [ Switzerland with Liechtenstein ] in German. Federal Department of Statistics Stärke der Parteien nach Kanton" [Election Retrieved 19 November Federal Department of Statistics a.
Datenwürfel für Thema The interactive statistical database: Data cube for about Archived from the original on 25 December Federal Department of Statistics b.
Archived from the original Excel on 25 July Retrieved 15 January The interactive statistical database]. Archived from the original on 9 April Gasser, Adolf; Keller, Ernst Federal Office of Statistics. Flags of the World. A-ak Bayes 15th ed. Luck, James Murray A History of Switzerland: The First , years: The most commonly traded North Sea crude oil. Brent has an API of about The blend is, however, commonly referred to simply as Brent.
The quantity of heat required to raise one pound of water about one pint one degree Fahrenheit at or near its point of maximum density. A common unit of measurement for gas prices. See also therm, dekatherm, natural gas. The partial reduction of electrical voltages caused by customer demand being higher than anticipated or by the failure of the generation, transmission, or distribution system. Bottom sediment and water, usually expressed as a percentage by weight. Tanker expression, acceptable on second reference.
The process for removing benzene, toluene and xylene from reformate or pyrolysis gasoline. Believing that a price is going to rise. A residual fuel used as ship's fuel, which usually has a high sulfur content and high viscosity.
The point at which natural gas is used as a fuel. The point at which power is available for transmission. A conductor or group of conductors that serve as a common connection for two or more circuits, generally in the form of insulated cable, rigid rectangular or round bars, or stranded overhead cables held under tension.
The cost of producing one kWh of electricity delivered to, but not through, the transmission system typically US. A derivative of crude C4s.
Butadiene is extracted from the CC4 stream. A pricing basis in which the buyer pays the cost of the cargo and the freight costs. Designates the C4 stream produced by an ethylene plant.
An option that gives the buyer holder the right but not the obligation to buy a specified quantity of an underlying futures at a fixed price, on or before a specified date. The grantor of the option is obliged to deliver the future at the fixed price if the holder exercises the option. A Japanese charting system which maps the open- high-low-and close of periodic price movements.
A box is drawn around the open and close, and painted white if the close is above the open, and black if the close is below the open. The boxes and their little heads and tails look like candles and their wicks. Candlestick studies are full of exotic terms like Morning Star and Dark Cloud Cover; these describe how the black and white candles look, and can be interpreted as buy or sell signals.
A transmission element designed to inject reactive power into the transmission network. Also used to increase voltages, reduce loadings, and increase available kW output from generators.
Capacitor ratings typically given in Megavars. The power output rating of a generator, typically in megawatts, measured on an instantaneous basis. The amount of capacity available for purchase from other power systems.
One element of a two-part pricing method used in power transactions energy charge is the other element. Assessed on the amount of capacity being purchased, typically in units of currency per MWh. The amount of capacity above planned peak system demand available to provide for scheduled maintenance, emergency outages, system operating requirements, and unforeseen demand. The temporary relinquishment of firm transportation capacity on a pipeline. The capacity holder releases the capacity in the open market and accepts bids for use of that capacity over a specific, limited period of time.
The permanent relinquishment of firm capacity on a pipeline. A market mechanism designed to reduce the cost of cutting pollution. The regulator caps pollution at a level below business-as-usual and allocates allowances to industry up to but not exceeding the cap.
Covered entities must have their emissions independently verified and must surrender allowances to match their annual emissions each year, normally with penalties for non-compliance. Since the overall cap is below actual emissions, this cuts the overall level of pollution and creates a scarcity of allowances, and therefore a monetary value. Those with a surplus may sell them to those with a shortfall, creating a tradable market for allowances. Tanker market abbreviation for Caribbean.
An arbitrage transaction involving the simultaneous purchase of a cash commodity with borrowed money and the sale of the appropriate futures contract. The physical market underlying a futures or options contract.
A gasoline blending component made in a cat cracker. Feedstock to a catalytic cracker, usually vacuum gasoil. In market terms, a rectangular plate of metal, produced by electrolytic refining, which is melted into commercial shapes such as wirebars, billets, ingots etc.
Copper and nickel are commonly traded and delivered in this form. A UN scheme set up under the Kyoto Protocol to allow industrialized countries to invest in greenhouse gas emissions reduction projects in developing countries in return for tradable offset credits CERs.
Unit of measurement for viscosity, similar to seconds. A paraffinic hydrocarbon used as an additive in diesel fuel. Number equal to the percentage by volume of cetane added to basic diesel fuel to achieve specific ignition performance characteristics. Crude oil swap, tied to published price assessments, which exchanges floating short-term risk for fixed risk. Like it sounds, a channel in which prices are moving. Parallel trendlines are drawn along the lows and highs of a price chart, forming a channel in which prices move.
The trendlines form areas of support and resistance. Depending on the trend, the channel can be a downchannel or an upchannel. Most petrochemical trade in China is carried out basis China Main Port, rather than a specific port. Cost, insurance and freight charges for shipping products. CIF prices include these charges. A conductor or a system of conductors through which electric current flows. Physical location where gas is delivered by a pipeline to a local distribution company.
The process of matching trades, settling trades and provision of a guarantee for traded contracts, often a service performed by exchanges. A fee charged by a clearing house for clearing trades. Finalizing a transaction by making an equal and opposite trade to an open position. The temperature at which a fuel, when cooled, begins to congeal and take on a cloudy appearance caused by the bonding of paraffins.
Also known in the energy industry as "the Merc. An automotive fuel, mainly used in Canada and in transport fleet operations in the US.
A tanker market term. Contract of affreightment between ship owner and charterer. The process of burning natural gas in conjunction with another fuel. Cofiring can reduce sulfur dioxide SO2 and nitrogen oxide NOx emissions, the precursors of acid rain. The production of both electricity and useful thermal energy from the same energy source. Natural gas tends to be a favored fuel for combined-cycle cogeneration units, in which waste heat is converted to electricity.
The combination of one or more gas turbine and steam turbines in an electric generation plant. An electric generating technology in which electricity is produced from otherwise lost waste heat exiting from one or more gas combustion turbines.
The heat is routed to a conventional boiler or to a heat recovery steam generator for use by a steam turbine in the production of electricity. This process increases the efficiency of the electric generating unit.
Power plant, usually embedded, which produces both electric and thermal energy in the form of steam. CCI measures the variation of an instrument's price from its mean.
Compressed natural gas used in vehicles and in other applications not attached to a pipeline. Facility that moves gas through transmission lines or into storage by creating pressure differentials.
Most stations use some of the gas moving through the line as fuel. A fine, powdery product of the milling process containing valuable metal and from which most of the waste material in the ore has been eliminated and discarded as tailings. Often abbreviated to concs. Very high API crude "oil," which in its natural state is in gaseous form but which condenses to liquid upon production. OPEC has for many years argued over the precise definition of condensates, since it does not include them in individual countries' crude production quotas.
A substance or body, usually in the form of a wire, cable, or busbar, that allows a current of electricity to pass continuously along it. When prices trade at similar levels over a period of time, the chart becomes cluttered with business at these levels and is referred to as 'congested'.
They are the levels at which, rather than breaking into new ground, prices tend to bog down and become trapped. The physical junction transmission lines, transformers, switch gear, etc between two electric systems permitting the transfer of electricity.
All this means is that prices are moving in a broadly sideways range after a sharp move in one direction. Market situation where prices are higher for forward delivery dates than for nearer delivery dates. Platts demand-weighted index of continental European power assessments.
A binding agreement between a buyer and a seller in a transaction. Often abbreviated to CP. Most oil contract prices are "floating", that is they are tied to spot market assessments published by Platts or other market pricing services rather than set at outright levels.
A substance circulating through a nuclear reactor to remove or transfer heat. Most common coolants are carbon dioxide, water light , and heavy water. The simultaneous purchase or sale of crude against the sale or purchase of refined petroleum products. These spread differentials which represent refining margins are normally quoted in dollars per barrel by converting the product prices into dollars per barrel and subtracting the crude price.
Adjective normally referring to molecules broken by non-distillation refining processes. Residue remaining after a straight run fuel has been processed by enhanced refining methods. Refining process to break large molecules into smaller ones. Principal cracking techniques are: Thermal cracking is no longer widely used, except in: Thermal cracking of viscous crude residues to make fuel oil, and in: Cracking using catalysts to enhance molecule breaking, particularly in the production of high octane gasoline.
While thermal and catalytic cracking produce shorter hydrocarbon molecules largely by disposing of the excess carbon atoms, hydrocracking inserts hydrogen atoms to achieve the same effect. A petrochemical process which produces olefins, particularly ethylene, and, in some cases, aromatics. Similar to thermal cracking Co-Cracking: A petrochemical process in which the c4 stream from an ethylene plant is recycled into the feedstock.
A measurement of water flow representing one cubic foot of water moving past a given point in one second. The following are standard abbreviations used by Platts. Korea Yuan China Zloty Poland. A flow of electrons in an electrical conductor. The rate of movement of the electricity, measured in amperes. An option offered by utilities to customers who can accept specified amounts of service reduction in return for reduced electric rates.
Also called "base gas". A smelter which processes concentrates from independent mines. Concentrates may be purchased or the smelter may be contracted to do the processing for the independent company—a process also known as toll smelting. Cycle theory is based on the premise that prices are affected by an underlying cycle. Some of these are well known: Others are less obvious. Number of times the same quantity of gas can be injected into and withdrawn from storage in a set period of time.
Certain types of storage fields, like aquifer and depleted oil and gas fields, need to be filled and largely emptied during a specific period of time in order to maintain the physical capabilities of the geologic structure.
The majority of these exports occur in bulk railcars. Platts current FAS Houston polymer assessments are for waterborne exports bagged in containers. These include the bagging cost and the transport cost from the bagging facility to the port, but the freight and everything else is on the buyer. Brent cargoes are known as dated Brent cargoes once they acquire a specific set of loading dates, usually at a point about two weeks from loading. Before this point, Brent cargoes are typically traded generically as so-called day Brent.
The dated Brent market, which Platts assesses on a day forward basis days on a Friday , generates prices which have become a key benchmark for contract pricing of crude oil worldwide.
An atomic nucleus, stable or radioactive, which originates from the process of radioactive decay of an unstable nucleus. Sometimes known as a daughter product. A fall in an electricity rate when an increase in consumption cuts the cost to a utility of providing service. Degree days are measured as the number of degrees above or below a standardized temperature on any given day.
In winter, US traders track heating degree days week by week, or month by month, normally against a standard temperature of 65F, on the basis of how many degrees of heat are required to bring municipal office buildings up to this temperature.
Five days of heating by 2 degrees, for example, equals 10 heating degree days. In summer, the market tracks cooling degree days. A process by which propylene is made from propane. A unit of heating value equal to ten therms or 1-mil Btus 1 MMBtu. The volume that a particular well, storage field, pipeline or distribution system can supply during a hour period. The process whereby the grantor of an option decides to buy or sell more or less of an underlying futures contract in order to protect against being declared upon by the options holder.
All activities or programs undertaken by an electricity system or consumers to influence the amount and timing of electricity use. The detention or delay of a vessel in loading or unloading beyond the time agreed upon. Demurrage charges are usually incurred for any delay. Uranium where the uranium assay is below the naturally occurring 0.
Depleted uranium is a by-product of the enrichment process. Delivered East of the Rockies. Most US solvents and some intermediates are sold on this basis. Abbreviation for Directorate of Engine Research and Development. A financial transaction that derives its value from the value of another asset. Commodity derivatives derive their value from physical commodity transactions.
The value of a derivative rises and falls in accordance with the value of the underlying asset. Derivatives can be traded on regulated exchange markets or over-the-counter. A hour period of demand used as a basis for planning gas capacity requirements. A measure of the ignition quality of a diesel fuel calculated from a formula involving the gravity of the fuel and its aniline point.
The difference between two prices. A large and increasing percentage of all oil transactions are effected on the basis of differentials, also known as spreads,rather than outright flat prices.
An electricity current that flows in one direction with a magnitude that does not vary or that varies only slightly. Momentary disturbances in transmission, usually detectable only by sensitive electronic equipment.
An amount agreed between buyer and seller to be subtracted from an existing benchmark. The substitution of less expensive energy generation for more expensive generation. Usually this means reducing or shutting down production at a high cost plant and using cheaper generation when it is available. The system of lines, transformers and switches that connect a transmission network to customer load.
The transport of electricity to ultimate use points such as homes and businesses. A state where the market is dominated by sellers, who are holding length and 'distributing' to the players who need to buy. An independent company accredited to validate and verify emissions reductions at a CDM or JI project. The competitive sale of gas to residential or small commercial customers, allowing those customers a choice of supplier other than the local distribution company.
The final saleable product of a gold mine, usually consisting of gold and silver. A bullish reversal pattern characterized by two lows at roughly equal value. A bearish reversal pattern characterized by two highs at roughly equal value. Theory of market movement developed by Charles Dow that prices move in defined trends of successive higher peaks and higher troughs in an uptrend, and lower peaks and lower troughs in a downtrend.
Dow divides trends into primary, secondary and minor. Volume patterns are associated with specific points in a trend. Dow theory is the foundation of most modern technical theory. A price pattern characterized by successive falling highs and falling lows. Natural gas which does not contain liquid hydrocarbons. Gas is usually priced on a dry basis. Russian high sulfur straight-run feedstock. Energy sold on a non-firm basis and subject to recall at the discretion of the selling party.
Exchange of futures for physical: A written report, compiled prior to a production decision, which examines the effects proposed mining activities will have on the natural surroundings of an exploration property. The process of purifying metal ingots which are suspended as anodes in an electrolytic bath, alternated with refined sheets of the same metal, which acts as starters or cathodes.
A theory developed by Ralph Elliott that prices move in a main five-wave trend followed by a corrective three- wave trend, the extent and scope of which are governed by certain commonly seen ratios see Fibonacci. The historical cost of all facilities in the power supply system. An agreement that provides the general terms and conditions for the purchase, sale, or exchange of electricity but does not list specific contract details or obligate either party to perform.
That portion of the charge for electricity based upon the electrical energy kWh consumed or billed. Also known as the commodity charge. Uranium where the uranium assay is above that of natural uranium. Enriched uranium product refers to enriched uranium resulting from the enrichment process, ie the process by which the assay of feed material is increased.
Tradable greenhouse gas emissions offset credits generated by the UN' Joint Implementation program. Ethyl tert-butyl ether ETBE is commonly used as an oxygenate gasoline additive in the production of gasoline from crude oil. European Union Emissions Trading Scheme. Iceland, Liechtenstein and Norway. European Union emission Allowance: The procedure by which an option holder takes up the rights to the contract and is delivered a long call or short put futures position by the grantor at a fixed price.
A fee that is paid by a customer leaving a utility network intended to compensate the utility in whole or part for the loss of fixed cost contribution from the exiting customer. The date by which an option holder must decide whether to exercise or abandon an option. An interest in an oil or gas lease that is granted by the lease holder to a third party.
Product is sold when the goods in question are placed on the quay alongside the vessel. FAS is often traded in the US polymer export market. A fast reactor with fertile material loaded around the core, to be converted into fissile material through neutron capture, which generates more fissile material than is consumed.
A reactor in which the fission chain reaction is sustained with high-energy or high-speed ie fast neutrons. The rail- and roadfreight equivalent of Free on Board. Used by tanker brokers to conceal the identity of a tanker charterer while signaling that the party concerned is a serious player. This is effectively the delivered end of an FCA deal. Raw material used in a processing plant. Gas used as a raw material for chemical properties in creating an end product like plastics or fertilizer.
Federal Energy Regulatory Commission. A US federal agency created in to regulate, among other things, interstate wholesale gas and transportation of gas and electricity at "just and reasonable" rates.
The order that unbundled US pipeline services, requiring pipelines to cease their merchant function and instead become solely a transporter of gas. Material which can be converted into fissile material by the capture of a neutron. Sometimes referred to as source or breeder material, examples include uranium and thorium Fibonacci levels are commonly observed ratios between the size of a main trend and retracements. The main ratios are These ratios are derived from the number series named after the Italian mathematician: If the first term is divided by the one to the right of it, the result gets nearer and nearer to 0.
Fibonacci levels are used in the weird and wonderful Elliott Wave Theory. LPG is sometimes sold on this basis. Energy sales which, although not subject to interruption for economic purposes, may be interrupted under force majeure conditions.
Gas sold on a continuous basis for a defined contract term. Electricity capacity intended to be available at all times during the period covered by a guaranteed commitment to deliver, even under adverse conditions, but subject to force majeure interruptions. Firm power consists of either firm energy, firm capacity, or both. All the nuclear material required to being initial operation of a reactor.
Any element containing an isotope with nuclei capable of undergoing fission as a result of interaction with slow neutrons in a nuclear reactor. The two most common examples of such isotopes are uranium and plutonium, but uranium is also important.
The splitting of a heavy nucleus into two occasionally three parts following neutron capture, accompanied by the release of energy, two or more neutrons, and radiation. The released neutrons may cause the fission of other fissile atoms, thus creating a chain reaction; this physical reaction is the basis of nuclear energy generation. The charge calculated to recover all or a portion of the fixed costs of a utility, including generation facility and transmission lines, meters, and some taxes.
A price chart pattern that looks like a flag-pole with a rectangular 'flag' hanging off it. It is often seen as a sign that the trend is likely to continue after a brief consolidation. The lowest temperature under very specific conditions at which a combustible liquid will give off sufficient vapor to form a flammable mixture with air in a standardized vessel. Denotes the volatility of the product. Unit and container for measuring mercury, equal to 76lb.
The UK's flexibility mechanism, also known as the flex, is operated by Transco British Gas to make sure the amount of gas in the pipeline remains more or less constant at all times. If the system goes out of balance, Transco uses the flex to balance the system by buying and selling gas based on bids and offers submitted by shippers.
Equipment used to remove sulfur oxides from the combustion gases of a boiler plant before discharge to the atmosphere. Chemicals like lime are used. Usually abbreviated to FOB. FOB prices exclude all insurance and freight charges.
The French term for heating oil. Denotes circumstances beyond the control of a company, which force the breaking of a contract. The rate of shutdown of a generating unit, transmission line, or other facility for emergency reasons or a condition in which the generating equipment is unavailable for load because of unanticipated breakdown.
The first substantial oil field discovered in the British sector of the North Sea. Also used to refer to the crude oil produced from the field.
The price today for the delivery of a commodity to a specific location on a specified date in the future. When plotted together, a series of forward prices creates a forward curve, reflecting a range of today's tradable values for specified dates in the future. While it is a key indicator of today's market sentiment, the forward curve is not a price forecast - it is a set of today's prices for delivery during future dates.
The structure shown by the forward curve is most often used as a guide for trading and hedging within the delivery date range along that curve. Similar to a futures contract, but forwards can be customized to suit the specific needs of the counterparties involved while a futures contract is standardized and traded on an exchange. The rail- and roadfreight equivalent of Free on board. An array or assembly of individual fuel rods containing UO2, MOX or uranium metal pellets, used in commercial reactors.
A device that generates direct current to electricity by means of an electrochemical process. The production of reactor fuel, usually in the form of ceramic pellets, encased in metal tubes which are then arranged in fuel assemblies.
Substituting one fuel for another based on price and availability. Large industries often have the capability of using either oil or natural gas to fuel their operation and of making the switch on short notice. The net capability of main generating units that is unavailable for load for emergency reasons. The formation of a heavier nucleus from two lighter ones usually hydrogen isotopes with the attendant release of a large amount of energy.
An agreement to make or take delivery of a commodity at a fixed date or strip of dates in the future, at a price agreed upon at the time of dealing. Used as a measure of contaminants and to specify density of refined oil products. Standard German grade gasoline, for example, is specified as 0.
Generally accepted across the oil industry to refer to a US gallon. There are 42 US gallons in a barrel. An eclectic blend of fact and fantasy, the works of WD Gann caught on in the City in the late s. Their chief virtue seems to be that they are understood by no-one, and so almost anyone can claim to be an expert in them without recourse.
A fundamental and usually long-lasting oversupply situation. A gas bubble typically is responsible for long-term depressed prices. Gas-gathering systems on oilfields typically are designed to stream off associated gas from the crude.
An intermediate distillate product used for diesel fuel, heating fuel and sometimes as feedstock. Volatile motor fuel used in cars. See also octane number.
The process of producing electricity by transforming other forms of energy such as steam, heat or falling water. Also, the amount of electricity produced, expressed in kilowatt-hours kWh or megawatt-hours MWh. A producer of electricity, both literally and figuratively. Power generated from heat energy derived from hot rock, hot water, or steam below the earth's surface.
A joule is an international unit of energy defined as the energy produced from one watt flowing for one second. A very small unit of energy, there are mil joules in a kilowatt-hour. One gigawatt equals 1-billion watts, 1-million kilowatts, or 1, megawatts. One gigawatt-hour equals one billion watthours. A form of debt financing whereby a potential gold producer borrows an amount of gold from a lending institution, sells the gold on the open market, uses the cash for company purposes ie building a mine , then pays back the gold from actual mine production.
Gasoil Moteur — French gasoil specification. Refers to a grade of polystyrene. The layout of an electrical transmission system or a synchronized transmission network. Lies just south of Frankfurt-am-Main. Formerly three railroad companies in Tulsa, Oklahoma. Group 3 now refers to the pipeline price of petroleum commodities from Tulsa to Minnesota in the US. Hydrodealkylation, a process used for making benzene from toluene. A reversal pattern characterized by a high, a higher high, a lower high, and a break below the line joining the lows between the highs, the so-called neck-line.
A process whereby valuable metals usually gold and silver are leached from a heap or pad of crushed ore by leaching solutions percolating down through the heap and are collected from a sloping, impermeable liner below the pad.
Has an API gravity of less than 28 degrees. The lower the API gravity, the heavier the oil. Metallic elements with atomic numbers equal to or higher than uranium, used as a collective term to provide interdependence of the exact chemical form. Water containing significantly more than the natural proportion 1 in of heavy hydrogen deuterium atoms to ordinary hydrogen atoms.
Heavy water is used as a moderator in some nuclear reactors. The reduction of risk by covering anticipated commitments at a fixed price in the future through a futures or options contract. Buyers and sellers can hedge. A pipeline interchange near Erath, Louisiana, where a number of interstate and intrastate pipelines interconnect through a header system operated by Sabine Pipe Line.
A powerful group of greenhouse gases used as refrigerants. Heavy Louisiana Sweet, a US crude oil. Number 2 heating oil is essentially the same product as gasoil. Some countries, notably the Russian Federation and Ukraine, hold a surplus of AAUs because those countries' national emissions fell due to economic decline after the fall of the Soviet Union. High sulfur fuel oil.
Typically fuel oil containing 3. A geographical location where multiple participants trade services. A plant in which the turbine generators are driven by falling water. The opposition in an electrical circuit to the flow of alternating current AC. The returnable collateral required to establish an options position.
Abbreviation for injection grade in plastics. Energy exchanged between a reservoir owner and the owner of a downstream project. The agreement allows reservoir owners to retain water above a reservoir's energy content curve; however, owners of downstream projects may request release of such water. Facilities that connect two electricity grid systems, gas pipelines or control areas. A km pipeline providing a strategic link between the UK and continental Europe, connecting the two gas transmission systems at Bacton in the UK and Zeebrugge in Belgium.
The range from base load to a point between base load and peak. This point may be the midpoint, a percent of the peakload, or the load over a specified time period. The amount of customer demand that, in accordance with contractual arrangements, can be interrupted by direct control of the system operator, remote tripping, or by action of the customer at the direct request of the system operator. Gas sold to customers with a provision that permits curtailment or cessation of service at the discretion of the supplier.
An option which has intrinsic value. A put option is in-the-money when its strike price is above the value of the underlying futures contract. A call option is in-the-money when its strike price is below the value of the underlying futures contract. The value to an option holder if s he were to exercise an option today.
A bullish reversal pattern characterized by a low, a lower low, a less low low, and a breakout to the upside. The International Petroleum Exchange in London. Independent power producers - unregulated power generators which, unlike utilities, have no franchised retail service territories. Even a plant built by an investor-owned utility to serve its native retail load is not an IPP. It's still a utility plant. Also, utilities that form affiliates and build outside of their territories can be IPPs.
Nuclear fuel which has been loaded into a reactor and has undergone a sustained chain reaction. A compound with the same chemical composition and molecular weight as another compound, but with a different molecular structure. Mixed xylenes used as gasoline blendstock.
Made in an isomerization unit. Typically, the process of separating mixed xylenes into orthoxylene and paraxylene. Different forms of atoms of the same element. Each element has the same number of protons in its nucleus, but the number of neutrons varies in almost all elements and this determines the isotope.
A UN scheme set up under the Kyoto Protocol to allow industrialized countries to invest in emissions reduction projects in other industrialized countries, in return for tradable greenhouse gas offset credits ERUs. A measure of energy equal to 1 watt second. One kilowatt equals watts.
A unit of electricity equal to one thousand watts. A unit of electrical capacity equivalent to one kilowatt of power used for hours. The basic unit for pricing electric energy, equal to one kilowatt of power supplied continuously for one hour or the amount of electricity needed to light ten watt lightbulbs for one hour. One kWh equals 1, watthours. A treaty of countries, created in Kyoto entered into force February 16, The measure of the rate at which fuel is consumed relative to electric output, expressed in Btu's per kWh.
The total cost of oil off-loaded at a port, including duties, fees and taxes. An electricity delivery hub in Switzerland, divided between Laufenburg National and Laufenburg International. The range of dates during which a ship will load. In a futures market, selling a nearby contract while at the same time buying an equivalent forward contract.
The opposite strategy, buying nearby and selling forward, is known as borrowing. London Interbank Offered Rate. LIBORs are forward foreign exchange interest rates. The act of loading petroleum or petroleum products at a terminal or transfer point.
Has an API gravity higher than 33 degrees. The higher the API gravity, the lighter the crude oil. Group of petroleum products with the lowest boiling temperatures, including gasolines and distillate fuels. A brownish-black coal of low rank with high inherent moisture and volatile matter used almost exclusively for electric power generation.
It is also referred to as brown coal. A liter is 1,th of a cubic meter. Convert to barrels instead. A US crude oil. Natural gas converted to a liquid state by pressure and severe cooling, then returned to a gaseous state to be used as fuel. Acceptable first reference abbreviation. LNG is moved in tankers, not via pipelines.
LNG, which is predominantly methane, artificially liquefied, is not to be confused with NGLs, natural gas liquids, heavier fractions which occur naturally as liquids. The amount of electricity delivered or required at any specific point or points on a system. The load of an electricity system is effected by many factors and changes on a daily, seasonal, and annual basis, typically following a pattern.
System load is usually measured in megawatts MW. A curve of power versus time showing the level of a load for each time period covered. The horizontal axis is time and the vertical access is load MW. The ratio of average load to peak load during a specific period of time, expressed as a percent. The load factor indicates to what degree energy has been consumed compared to maximum demand or the use of units relative to total system capability. An system's load factor shows the variability in all customers' demands.
The management of load patterns in order to better use the system. Generally, load management attempts to shift load from peak use periods to other periods of the day or year.
Variations in the power load over a daily, weekly or annual period. Allowing a customer to take gas and return it at a future state. Usually a service provided at a market hub. Traders are said to be long when they have contracted to buy more of a commodity or instrument than they have contracted to sell. All costs associated with the lowest cost incremental unit including variable production costs and capital costs. The tendency of electricity to flow along the path of least resistance, which may not necessarily be the same as that intended in the contract between the two transmitting entities.
If power sold along a contractual path goes a different physical path, the power-flow may interfere with control of the systems which were unaware of the contractual power transfer. A measure of expectation that system demand will exceed capacity during a given period, often expressed as the expected number of days per year. Liquefied petroleum gas, typically ethane, propane butane and isobutane.
Usually produced at refineries or natural gas processing plants, including plants that fractionate raw natural gas plant liquids. LPG can also occur naturally as a condensate. Divided into LR1 45,,dwt , and LR2 80,,dwt. A trend following momentum indicator that maps the difference between two exponential moving averages, the 26 and day.
A system of pricing designed to ignore all costs except those associated with producing the next increment of power generation. Sometimes referred to as incremental cost pricing. Price for power from a unit which is already running. Storage facilities or hub located near gas users markets.
An order to buy or sell a specified amount of futures contracts at the price when the market closes. Platts' market-on-close MOC is a price-discovery system designed to yield a price assessment reflective of market values at the close of the typical trading day. Systems of similar nature are very common, with variants seen in the futures markets where the energy and financial exchanges publish daily settlement prices reflective of activity at the close of markets.
The MOC process is a very structured system for information gathering that allows transparent and fully verifiable market information to form the basis of the daily price assessment. MOC is a time-tested method for deriving price benchmarks that reflect market value and Platts has provided these benchmarks to global energy markets across Asia, Europe, the Middle East, and Africa for more than a decade.
The MOC pricing system recognizes as a core principle that price is a function of time and MOC enables Platts to have full clarity on the price at the close of business. Because price is a function of time, market assessments reflect values at a defined point in time, allowing both outright and spread values to be properly reflected. This is a process used to determine the fair value of forward contracts and commodity inventories at a specific point in time.
Contract prices are compared with the current forward prices for delivery during respective periods along the forward price curve. The present value of the differences is the mark-to-market value. Positive values are reported as assets and negative values are reported liabilities in accounts.
Accounting standards and regulatory guidelines require fair value mark-to-market accounting in many jurisdictions. One thousand cubic feet of natural gas. Market abbreviation for Mediterranean. A unit of electrical power equal to one million watts or one thousand kilowatts. One million watt-hours of electricity. A unit of electrical energy which equals one megawatt of power used for one hour.
One million cubic feet of natural gas. A component of some nuclear reactor types which slows neutrons, thereby increasing their chances of fissioning fissile material. Used in some markets as a substitute term for gasoline. The simple difference between the price now and the price N days ago. Momentum is negative if the price now is below the price N days ago, and positive if it is above.
Meeting of Parties to the Kyoto Protocol. Mean of Platts AG. The mean of the high and low components of a Platts assessment for oil cargoes loading from the Persian Gulf Arab Gulf. Often used as a component in floating price deals.
Mean of Platts Singapore. The mean of the high and low components of a Platts assessment for oil cargoes loading from Singapore. To place a generating facility in an inactive state so that it can neither be brought into operation immediately nor counted towards reserve margin. The mean of prices over a pre-defined period, for instance, the previous five days. For instance, funds have in the past tended to buy when the price crosses the day moving average from below, and to sell when it cuts the average from above.
The point where a short moving average crosses a longer-moving average. These are often taken as buy or sell signals. When the shorter MA crosses the longer from below and both are turning upwards, it is called a Golden Cross, a strong buy signal.
Envelopes use moving averages which are sifted up or down by a certain percentage to establish a certain 'normal' band in which the price moves.
If prices break out of these, they tend to revert to the mean. Medium range tanker, 25,,dwt. Malaysian ringgit, the Malaysian unit of currency. Methyl tertiary butyl ether — an octane booster and oxygenate used for gasoline blending. A utility owned and operated by a municipality or group of municipalities. The full-load continuous rating of a generator or other electric power production equipment under specific conditions as designated by the manufacturer.
Installed generator nameplate rating is usually indicated on a nameplate physically attached to the generator. Used as a feedstock for reforming and as a petrochemical feedstock. Favored form of reformer feedstock naphtha. An imaginary point on the UK Transco pipeline through which all gas is deemed to flow, and about which all gas is balanced. The Canadian regulatory body which oversees interprovincial natural gas trade and pipelines.
Located in Calgary, Alberta. Naturally occurring gas, predominantly methane, but usually containing some proportions of ethane, propane and butane. Natural gas can be either associated gas or non-associated.
A naturally occurring mixture of hydrocarbon and non-hydrocarbon gases found in porous geological formations beneath the earth's surface, often in association with petroleum. The principal constituent is methane. The following are some of the standard abbreviations used in natural gas measurement. Also abbreviated to bcf. Also abbreviated to bcm.
Million British thermal units. The maximum load-carrying ability of a power plant under specified conditions for a given time interval. Capability is determined by design characteristics, physical conditions, energy supply and operating limitations such as cooling and circulating water supply and temperature, headwater and tailwater elevations, and electrical use.
Gross generation less the electric energy consumed at the generating station for station use. The interest in a mining property held by the vendor on the net revenues generated by the sale of the metal produced by the mine. An interconnected system of electrical transmission lines, transformers, switches and other equipment connected in such a way as to provide reliable transmission of electricity. Not to be confused with LNG, liquefied natural gas. All fissile material in any chemical form and the hardware required to produce fuel for a reactor.
Fissionable materials that have been enriched to such a composition that, when placed in a nuclear reactor, will support a self-sustaining fission chain reaction, producing heat in a controlled manner for process use. A facility in which heat produced in a reactor by the fissioning of nuclear fuel is used to drive a steam turbine.