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Enjoy the stunning views over the medieval roofscape of the old-town, or enjoy the sunset sipping a delightful glass of local Sauvignon Blanc at one of the popular restaurants. An impressive bastion is a remnant of the former mighty fortress, which was literally unconquerable. Even Napoleon could not overcome these walls. So, after a victory over the Habsburgs in , he had the fortress demolished. Luckily, the burghers of Graz agreed to pay a huge ransom and saved the Clock Tower from the same fate.
Getting up the Schlossberg can be quite a nice walk and a bit of a workout, but it does not have to be. Am Schlossberg 1 Graz. Looking for unforgettable experiences in Austria? Here are our suggestions for amazing places to see and delicious food to taste. Want to explore Austria at your own pace?
The end of my journey was to Hawthorn Ridge , site of a German position blown up by another British mine on the first day of the battle. The explosion was filmed. This is the same perspective as the famous photographs and films of the Hawthorn Ridge explosion. The trees are growing on the crater rim.
This is a famous photo of British soldiers awaiting the Hawthorn mine explosion on July 1, That sunken lane is still present years later. I wanted to add more about the geology of the battlefield , but the human tragedy is so overwhelming I decided to leave it for later. For now, see the geological cross-section below.
Also consider the remarkable observation that the intensity of the artillery bombardments actually changed the geology of the region. Mark Wilson May 28th, Given the incredible diversity of Vienna, we had just a taste today of its attractions and monuments in the city center.
Above is the elaborate city hall Wiener Rathaus. Apparently almost every emperor since added or otherwise changed the place, making it an astonishing mix of architectural styles Gothic, Renaissance, Baroque, Rococo, and Classicism to start. Much of it is unfinished since the ambitions of the last emperor were dashed with the fall of the monarchy in Elaborate Roman ruins about years old were recently found near the palace. The local rumor is that these are the remains of a brothel!
We had an extended tour of the myriapod collections essentially millipedes and centipedes , concentrating on various aspects of curation and preservation. As with most European museums, there is a significant human skull collection. I never did hear exactly how these skulls were acquired. During my afternoon tea with friends, this was our view to the left towards the center of the museum.
This was our view through the window to the right. In the square is the elaborate Maria Theresa monument the empress surrounded by her generals and statesmen.
The building on the other side is the Kunsthistorisches Museum , an art and history museum. It was the last place I visited this day.
This was the most impressive art object I saw in the Kunsthistorisches Museum: It was cut from a double-layered Arabian onyx stone, making an elaborate cameo. The link tells the long story of this figured stone, along with an interpretation of the grim scene. I practically had the place to myself on this weekday. The most evocative object in this museum is the car that carried Franz Ferdinand, heir to the throne of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, and his wife Sophie to their assassinations by the anarchist Gavrilo Princip on June 28, This was one of the triggering events of World War I.
The assassination scene in Sarajevo on June 28, Mark Wilson May 27th, It was my first visit, and I was of course very impressed. Above is a view of the Austrian Parliament building Parlamentsgebäude , and the beautiful blue sky we had for most of our meeting. About 50 bryozoan experts from 15 countries attended the conference. I love these meetings because of their small size, diversity of disciplines paleontologists and biologists freely mingle, being nearly indistinguishable until they give their presentations , and friendly fellowship.
English was the common language, for which I am grateful to my international colleagues. Here I am during my presentation. I had no idea I put my hands in my pockets. I look far more relaxed than I was! We had an afternoon excursion starting with the small but treasure-filled Krahuletz Museum in Eggenburg , Austria. This is one of those local museums with a national reputation for particular collections. In this case it is fossils, minerals and rocks from the very complex region. Outside the museum is an excellent rock garden with local varieties well labeled.
The above, of course, is a conglomerate with mostly carbonate clasts. This gneiss shows the useful form of the rock pillars.
Four sides are polished and the top is left rough, just the way a geologist likes it. After the museum we visited a quarry of fossiliferous Miocene limestone. A nice place, but protected from collecting. More than volunteers excavated this reef for public display under a permanent canopy. The lighting of the oysters was so dim that my photographs of them were worthless. The Fossil World tower is shaped like a Turritella shell.
Here is one of the oysters and some Turritella shells on display at Fossil World. There are many more fossils here than snails and oysters. It is a fun exhibit, but the science has been so diluted for the public that some of the offered explanations are nonsense. I recommend a visit, but with a paleontologist as a guide! Mark Wilson May 26th, Above is a bit of a large isotelid trilobite my students and I found this past spring break on an expedition to the Upper Ordovician Katian of northern Kentucky.
Note on the left side of the image some branching white encrustations, shown closer below. These are encrusting cyclostome bryozoans known as Cuffeyella arachnoidea. The genus Cuffeyella was named in by two characters you know from this blog: As you can see, these particular specimens are in terrible shape. One of the lessons of a paleontological education, though, is to learn how to recognize fossils when they are not at their best.
It will return later! Cuffeyella , a new bryozoan genus from the Late Ordovician of North America, and its bearing on the origin of the post-Paleozoic cyclostomates, p. Over of the division's SPW the overwhelming majority , including all the Sd.
The few surviving remains of Div to eventually escape northern Hungary eventually surrendered in Czechoslovakia to both Russian and US forces in early May I've referred to the Sd. After World War I ended with the armistice of 11 November , the armed forces were dubbed Friedensheer peace army in January In March , the national assembly passed a law founding a , strong preliminary army as Vorläufige Reichswehr.
The terms of the Treaty of Versailles were announced in May, and in June Germany was forced to sign the treaty which, among other terms, imposed severe constraints on the size of Germany's armed forces. The army was limited to one hundred thousand men with an additional fifteen thousand in the navy. The fleet was to consist of at most six battleships, six cruisers, and twelve destroyers. Submarines, tanks and heavy artillery were forbidden and the air force was dissolved. A new post-war military the Reichswehr was established on 23 March General conscription was abolished under another mandate of the Versailles treaty.
By , Germany had begun covertly circumventing these conditions. A secret collaboration with the Soviet Union began after the treaty of Rapallo. Major-General Otto Hasse traveled to Moscow in to further negotiate the terms. Germany helped the Soviet Union with industrialization and Soviet officers were to be trained in Germany.
German tank and air force specialists could exercise in the Soviet Union and German chemical weapons research and manufacture would be carried out there along with other projects. Around German pilots received training at Lipetsk, some tank training took place near Kazan and toxic gas was developed at Saratov for the German army.
After the death of President Paul von Hindenburg on 2 August , Hitler assumed the office of Reichspräsident, and thus became commander in chief. All officers and soldiers of the German armed forces had to swear a personal oath of loyalty to the Führer, as Adolf Hitler was called. By , Germany was openly flouting the military restrictions set forth in the Versailles Treaty, and conscription was reintroduced on 16 March While the size of the standing army was to remain at about the ,man mark decreed by the treaty, a new group of conscripts equal to this size would receive training each year.
The conscription law introduced the name Wehrmacht, so not only can this be regarded as its founding date, but the organization and authority of the Wehrmacht can be viewed as Nazi creations regardless of the political affiliations of its high command who nevertheless all swore the same personal oath of loyalty to Hitler. The insignia was a simpler version of the Iron Cross the straight-armed so-called Balkenkreuz or beamed cross that had been used as an aircraft and tank marking in late World War I, beginning in March and April The existence of the Wehrmacht was officially announced on 15 October Finally got some time to make a pic of my Marder II Sd.
Es hat einen einfach Betonsockel auf dem ein einfaches erneuertes Holzkreuz sich befindet. Das Blechbild wird von einem bogigen Baldachin mit Zierrand und Kreuz darüber geschützt. Unterhalb des Madonnen-Bildes eine kleine Vase für den Blumenschmuck. Am Fuss des Kreuzes ist eine Renovierungsinschrift eingraviert: Das Kreuz wurde seit seiner Errichtung vor bereits dreimal gänzlich erneuert.
Bereits im Josefinischen Kataster ist dieses Kreuz erfasst. Es wurde einfach zur Erbauung der Pilger errichtet. Örtlich wird es auch Holzer-Kreuz genannt.
Indeed, the BA files list both photos immediately prior to the road junction photo. Despite the poor quality, the upper right photo shows the Munitionsschlepper belonged to a 2. Batterie, while the Pz. This photo match fits well with the theory this Pz. III served as a stop-gap Pz. At this time in this area Pz.
Rgt of 4. Div have been identified operating under 4. Div info from K. Regt Grossdeutschland GD is also indicated in another photo. Of these the I. Div and GD had 2. III below right also reveals the same style of Balkenkreuz on the turret Schürzen, spare tracks on its glacis and foliage note especially under the gun barrel. Whether or not this likely Pz.
III came along with I. Div or belonged to Pz. Regt is unclear, as both units were under 4. Oft-published photo of a Halberstadt Cl. The photo dates circa May-June , going by how the traditional older-style 'iron cross' on the fuselage has been painted out and replaced with an early-style Balkenkreuz, which itself has been subsequently modified with narrower borders.
The ground crewman hands the observer M Stielhandgranaten M17 stick grenades which have six additional warheads strapped on - a modification referred to in German as Gebalte Ladung concentrated charge or according to some sources known informally as "Teufel Faust" devil's fist.
The infantry, for which the stick grenade was first developed in WWI, also field-modified Gebalte Ladungen as bunker and tank busters - a practice continued into the Second World War. The side fuselage rack contains five fragmentation bombs referred to in several texts as "Fliegermaus" Flying mouse or bat.
This particularly lethal anti-personnel weapon can be recognised as a Wurfgranate 15, or W. The observer simply had to pull the pin out from the front and the bombs would fall away in sequence fully armed - crude but effective. The only part that still needs an update are the turret cheeks but after trying some other techniques the last few days i decided to keep it like it was, for now. Nor too has their captioning offered much information, apart from the tank being usually described as an Ausf.
N given the mantlet Vorpanzer spaced armour. Indeed, comparing its profile, it appears instead to be a late Ausf L. It also may arguably be field-modified as a Pz. III, like the Pz.
It could also be these crewmen are artillery personnel and both Pz. III could conceivably be serving as stop-gap Pz. III of a self-propelled Artillerie unit, such as for example Art. Pz Div during Operation Cäsar. Soviet officers said to be of the th Inf. This photo is captioned as taken in "Breslau" Wroclaw in Poland in May by waralbum. This Marder bears some similarities with the two thus far unidentified examples included above right - the top one being without doubt the same unit as the supposed Breslau vehicle, while the bottom example is arguably so.
Also visible in the dump at left is a late Panther Ausf. HG, a unit known to use solid white 3-digit tactical numbers on the turret rear split by the hatch, plus contrasting red and white numbers on the turret side spare tracks, as well as in some instances Baleknkreuz painted on the gun mantelet sides.
IV with side-mounted spare track. In the background are an early model Pz. In the middle distance are two Sd. Kfz , the nearest to the Panther being an early Sd. D with two curious brackets welded to the upper hull side. Alongside the right bracket is a Balkenkreuz and possibly a name painted below the side vision slit. Alclad Klear Kote, this stuff is great! On a par with humbrol for smell, not quite so bad, the smell reminds me of the back end of a garage, maybe carburettor cleaner or degreaser maybe?
Drying time is very fast! Two coats and it's dry enough to work on in one evening! The pot recommends an hour. The decals really suck down onto it, you can pour it straight into the gun and fire it onto Tamiya and Humbrol acrylic with no problems. I'm converted forever to alclad gloss. As with all modern kits no swastika is provided, something funny happened behind a desk in the EU? There is a funny issue happening with the Balkenkreuz you need to add the lower white edges separately if you consider they were fitted, I can only find one picture of the machine in question and it is very low quality, I went with yes.
Hopefully by tomorrow this phase will be complete. Rudder out of shape because I dropped it! It's about as authentic a reproduction of a Panzerkampfwagen I Ausf B. I don't know anything much about tanks, so I apologize in advance to the purists. Also, I couldn't find too many good photos of the interior, so I just kind of winged it.
LDD instructions at rebrickable. My Jagdpanther has been in this version for a few months now, but I just now realized that I have never photographed it in its current state. A nose stand of a Hansa-Brandenburg W 12 floatplane, showing the sturdiness of this design. No damage of great substance can be seen at this angle.