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Chapter 13. Diversity of Microbes, Fungi, and Protists

On July 13, a jury acquitted Zimmerman of the charges of second degree murder and manslaughter. After DOJ said it would not charge him with a hate crime, Zimmerman said he felt free to speak his opinion "without fear of retaliation". He believed Obama inflamed racial tensions.

According to Zimmerman's brother Robert Jr. Between the shooting of Trayvon Martin and the trial, Zimmerman gained to pounds kg in about a month period. On September 28, , Zimmerman retweeted an evidence photograph of Trayvon Martin's body taken at the scene of the shooting and used in the trial. It stayed up for a few days before Twitter took it down. He also tweeted the work phone number of a person unrelated to the shooting, who was subsequently inundated with callers.

Zimmerman has had other encounters with the law, including two incidents in , five incidents in , and other incidents in following years. In July , when he was 21, Zimmerman was arrested after shoving an undercover alcohol control agent while a friend of Zimmerman's was being arrested for underage drinking. The officer alleged that Zimmerman had said, "I don't care who you are," followed by a profanity, and had refused to leave the area after the officer had shown his badge.

Zimmerman requested a reciprocal restraining order. Both orders were granted. The judge described them as " run of the mill. Zimmerman's wife Shellie pleaded guilty on August 28, , to a reduced misdemeanor perjury charge for lying under oath. She was sentenced to a year's probation and hours of community service.

She lied about their assets during a bail hearing following his arrest for shooting Martin. The jail recorded Zimmerman instructing her on a call to "pay off all the bills," including credit cards. On September 9, , in Lake Mary, police responded to a call by Zimmerman's estranged wife, who reported that Zimmerman had threatened her and her father with a gun and had punched her father in the face. Zimmerman was briefly detained and questioned by police.

Police took a broken iPad from the scene for examination of a video recording of the incident to determine whether to press charges against either Zimmerman or his wife.

On November 18, , Zimmerman's girlfriend called the police, alleging that after she had asked Zimmerman to leave her home, he had pointed a shotgun at her and begun breaking her belongings. On January 9, , Zimmerman was arrested by Lake Mary police and charged with aggravated assault with a weapon after allegedly throwing a wine bottle at his ex-girlfriend. On November 9, , Zimmerman was removed from a bar after yelling at a waitress. A deputy on the scene said Zimmerman used a racial slur before he left.

Zimmerman stated he intended to sue the Seminole County Sheriff's Office. The deputy claimed that Zimmerman said: On September 9, , Zimmerman was named by police in a road rage incident in which another driver, later named by police as Matthew Apperson, claimed that Zimmerman followed and threatened him.

He had explained this to Apperson before Apperson asked if Zimmerman knew he was "wrong for killing that little black boy".

Zimmerman lost Apperson after the two stopped at a gas station and Zimmerman drove off. On May 11, , Apperson shot at Zimmerman while the two were driving in separate cars on a street in Lake Mary. Zimmerman was grazed by glass and metal shards when the bullet broke through his passenger-side window and was stopped by the metal window frame, causing minor facial injuries from flying glass and debris. Zimmerman flagged down a police officer and was taken to the hospital.

It appears that Apperson has a fixation on Zimmerman and has displayed some signs of paranoia, anxiety, and bipolar disorder. On September 22, , a judge ruled Apperson would stand trial for second-degree attempted murder along with one count of aggravated assault and one count of shooting into an occupied vehicle.

He was also given a year concurrent sentence for aggravated assault stemming from the same incident. In May , Zimmerman was charged with stalking against a private investigator who had been working with Michael Gasparro and Jay-Z on the documentary series Rest in Power: The Trayvon Martin Story. According to the investigator, in December , Zimmerman contacted him with 21 phone calls, 38 text messages and 7 voice mails in two and a half hours.

In December , Zimmerman began selling paintings he had made. Everyone has been asking what I have been doing with myself. I found a creative way to express myself, my emotions, and the symbols that represent my experiences. My art work allows me to reflect, providing a therapeutic outlet, and allows me to remain indoors: Your friend, George Zimmerman.

It was later reported that the American flag painting was copied without attribution from a stock image taken from Shutterstock. In August , Zimmerman began selling a limited number of prints of a painting of the Confederate battle flag in conjunction with gun seller Andy Hallinan of Florida Gun Supply, in Inverness, Florida.

Hallinan is known for announcing that Muslims were not welcome at his store which was "Muslim free". Michael Walsh of Yahoo! News observed, "Zimmerman's latest painting brings together three highly controversial topics with which the nation is dealing: In January , the Associated Press and a Jacksonville, Florida photographer Rick Wilson demanded that Zimmerman halt the sale of one of his paintings because the news agency asserted it directly copied a photo owned by the AP.

The photo and painting identically show Jacksonville-based prosecutor Angela Corey whose office prosecuted Zimmerman for the shooting death of Martin holding her thumb and fingers together. Zimmerman apparently made up the quote that he added to the painting: In late August , controversy centering on Zimmerman arose when his Twitter profile picture of a Confederate flag "backed by an American flag" in his words became better-known.

Frequently criticized posts of his from August included one in which Zimmerman called Obama an "ignorant baboon"; [84] one in which he posted an image of Vesper Lee Flanagan, an African-American former news reporter who shot and killed two ex-coworkers during a live broadcast , and wrote, "If Obama had a son In September , Zimmerman retweeted a photo of Martin's slain body posted by another Twitter user, who had the caption: Several days later, Zimmerman posted a letter saying that the photo in the original tweet was marked as "sensitive" and was blocked, so he retweeted it because of the text message without seeing the photo.

In December , Zimmerman tweeted two photos of a topless woman he claimed was his ex-girlfriend, and accused her of cheating and of the theft of his firearm and money. He included her phone number and e-mail address on his tweet. Less than two hours later, Zimmerman's Twitter account was suspended by the administration of the resource, according to their policy against posting another person's private and confidential information, including e-mail addresses, phone numbers and familiar photos.

On May 11, , Zimmerman posted what was planned to be the auction of the firearm he used to shoot Martin. The post, in which Zimmerman wrote that the gun was "an American Firearm icon", attracted controversy.

Zimmerman subsequently explained that the Justice Department had recently returned the weapon to him. He said that he had the right as owner to sell it. Though the auction was set to take place May 12, the weapon listing was removed before the auction was scheduled to begin. Zimmerman reposted the firearm on another site, United Gun Group. Within minutes, the site was reported to have gone down due to the intense traffic prompted by the listing.

Zimmerman has since become a critic of President Obama. In , Public Policy Polling included Zimmerman as a potential Republican Party presidential candidate in an Alaska poll testing what person the state would support in the presidential election. Tom Jensen, director of Public Policy Polling, explained in an email that his firm had included Zimmerman because of his popularity among conservatives and curiosity as to "how he would do.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other people named George Zimmerman, see George Zimmerman disambiguation. Retrieved July 12, Retrieved April 6, Prelude to a shooting".

Metapopulation theory dictates that a metapopulation consists of spatially distinct populations that interact with one another on some level and move through a cycle of extinctions and recolonizations i.

Once this has occurred, dispersing individuals from other populations will immigrate and "rescue" the population at that site. Other metapopulation models include the source-sink model island-mainland model where one or multiple large central population s produces disperses to smaller satellite populations that have a population growth rate of less than one and could not persist without the influx from the main population. Metapopulation structure and the repeated extinctions and recolonizations can significantly affect a population's genetic structure.

Recolonization by a few dispersers leads to population bottlenecks which will reduce the effective population size Ne , accelerate genetic drift , and deplete genetic variation. However, dispersal between populations in the metapopulation can reverse or halt these processes over the long term. Therefore, in order for individual sub-populations to remain healthy, they must either have a large population size or have a relatively high rate of dispersal with other subpopulations.

Molecular ecology focuses on using tests to determine the rates of dispersal between populations and can use molecular clocks to determine when historic bottlenecks occurred. As habitat becomes more fragmented, dispersal between populations will become increasingly rare. Therefore, subpopulations that may have historically been preserved by a metapopulation structure may start to decline.

Using mitochondrial or nuclear markers to monitor dispersal coupled with population Fst values and allelic richness can provide insight into how well a population is performing and how it will perform into the future. The molecular clock hypothesis states that DNA sequences roughly evolve at the same rate and because of this the dissimilarity between two sequences can be used to tell how long ago they diverged from one another.

The first step in of using a molecular clock is it must be calibrated based on the approximate time the two lineages being study diverged. The sources usually used to calibrate the molecular clocks are fossils or known geological events in the past.

After calibrating the clock the next step is to calculate divergence time by dividing the estimated time since the sequences diverged by the amount of sequence divergence. The resulting number is the estimated rate at which molecular evolution is occurring.

Another drawback to using molecular clocks is that they ideally need to be calibrated from an independent source of data other than the molecular data. Despite these inconveniences, the molecular clock hypothesis is still used today, and has been successful in dating events happening as long ago as 65 million years such as the emergence of ancestral mammals. The concept of mate choice explains how organisms select their mates based on two main methods; The Good Genes Hypothesis and Genetic Compatibility.

The Good Genes Hypothesis, also referred to as the sexy son hypothesis , suggests that the females will choose a male that produce an offspring that will have increased fitness advantages and genetic viability.

Therefore, the mates that are more 'attractive" are more likely to be chosen for mating and pass on their genes to the next generation. In species which exhibit polyandry the females will search out for the most suitable males and re-mate until they have found the best sperm to fertilize their eggs. The mate which is doing the selecting must know their own genotype as well as the genotypes of potential mates in order to select the appropriate partner.

This behavior is potentially seen in humans. A study looking at women's choice in men based on body odors concluded that the scent of the odors were influenced by the MHC and that they influence mate choice in human populations. Sex-biased dispersal, or the tendency of one sex to disperse between populations more frequently than the other, is a common behavior studied by researchers.

Three major hypotheses currently exist to help explain sex-biased dispersal. The resource-competition hypothesis infers that the more philopatric sex the sex more likely to remain at its natal grounds benefits during reproduction simply by having familiarity with natal ground resources. A second proposal for sex-biased dispersal is the local mate competition hypothesis, which introduces the idea that individuals encounter less mate competition with relatives the farther from their natal grounds they disperse.

And the inbreeding avoidance hypothesis suggests individuals disperse to decrease inbreeding. Studying these hypotheses can be arduous since it is nearly impossible to keep track of every individual and their whereabouts within and between populations. To combat this time-consuming method, scientists have recruited several molecular ecology techniques in order to study sex-biased dispersal. One method is the comparison of differences between nuclear and mitochondrial markers among populations.

Markers showing higher levels of differentiation indicate the more philopatric sex; that is, the more a sex remains at natal grounds, the more their markers will take on a unique I. D, due to lack of gene flow with respect to that marker. Researchers can also quantify male-male and female-female pair relatedness within populations to understand which sex is more likely to disperse.

Pairs with values consistently lower in one sex indicate the dispersing sex. This is because there is more gene flow in the dispersing sex and their markers are less similar than individuals of the same sex in the same population, which produces a low relatedness value. FST values are also used to understand dispersing behaviors by calculating an FST value for each sex. The sex that disperses more displays a lower FST value, which measures levels of inbreeding between the subpopulation and the total population.

Additionally, assignment tests can be utilized to quantify the number of individuals of a certain sex dispersing to other populations. A more mathematical approach to quantifying sex-biased dispersal on the molecular level is the use of spatial autocorrelation. This correlation analyzes the relationship between geographic distance and spatial distance. A correlation coefficient, or r value, is calculated and the plot of r against distance provides an indication of individuals more related to or less related to one another than expected.

A quantitative trait locus QTL refers to a suite of genes that controls a quantitative trait. A quantitative trait is one that is influenced by several different genes as opposed to just one or two. Qst looks at the relatedness of the traits in focus. In the case of QTLs, clines are analyzed by Qst. A cline biology is a change in allele frequency across a geographical distance.

This selection causes local adaptation, but high gene flow is still expected to be present along the cline. For example, barn owls in Europe exhibit a cline in reference to their plumage coloration. Their feathers range in coloration from white to reddish-brown across the geological range of the southwest to the northeast.

Because high gene flow was still anticipated along this cline, selection was only expected to act upon the QTLs that incur locally adaptive phenotypic traits. This can be determined by comparing the Qst values to Fst fixation index values. If both of these values are similar and Fst is based on neutral markers then it can be assumed that the QTLs were based on neutral markers markers not under selection or locally adapted as well. However, in the case of the barn owls the Qst value was much higher than the Fst value.

This means that high gene flow was present allowing the neutral markers to be similar, indicated by the low Fst value.

But, local adaptation due to selection was present as well, in the form of varying plumage coloration since the Qst value was high, indicating differences in these non-neutral loci.

Fixation indices are used when determining the level of genetic differentiation between sub-populations within a total population. F ST is the script used to represent this index when using the formula:. In this equation, H T represents the expected heterozygosity of the total population and H S is the expected heterozygosity of a sub-populations.

Both measures of heterozygosity are measured at one loci. In the equation, heterozygosity values expected from the total population are compared to observed heterozygosity values of the sub-populations within this total population. Larger F ST values imply that the level of genetic differentiation between sub-populations within a total population is more significant. In these cases, higher F ST values typically imply higher amounts of inbreeding within the sub-populations.

These additional measures are interpreted in a similar manner to F ST values; however, they are adjusted to accompany other factors that F ST may not, such as accounting for multiple loci. Inbreeding depression is the reduced fitness and survival of offspring from closely related parents. Inbreeding, especially in small populations, is more likely to result in higher rates of genetic drift , which leads to higher rates of homozygosity at all loci in the population and decreased heterozygosity.

The rate of inbreeding is based on decreased heterozygosity. In other words, the rate at which heterozygosity is lost from a population due to genetic drift is equal to the rate of accumulating inbreeding in a population. In the absence of migration, inbreeding will accumulate at a rate that is inversely proportional to the size of the population. There are two ways in which inbreeding depression can occur. The first of these is through dominance , where beneficial alleles are usually dominant and harmful alleles are usually recessive.

The increased homozygosity resulting from inbreeding means that harmful alleles are more likely to be expressed as homozygotes, and the deleterious effects cannot be masked by the beneficial dominant allele. The second method through which inbreeding depression occurs is through overdominance , or heterozygote advantage.

Individuals that are heterozygous at a particular locus have a higher fitness than homozygotes at that locus. Inbreeding leads to decreased heterozygosity, and therefore decreased fitness. Deleterious alleles can be scrubbed by natural selection from inbred populations through genetic purging. As homozygosity increases, less fit individuals will be selected against and thus those harmful alleles will be lost from the population. Outbreeding depression is the reduced biological fitness in the offspring of distantly related parents.

The decline in fitness due to outbreeding is attributed to a breakup of coadapted gene complexes or favorable epistatic relationships. Risks of outbreeding depression increase with increased distance between populations. If outbreeding is limited and the population is large enough selective pressure acting on each generation may be able to restore fitness.

Selection acts on out bred generations using increased diversity to adapt to the environment. This may result in greater fitness among offspring than the original parental type. Conservation units are classifications often used in conservation biology , conservation genetics , and molecular ecology in order to separate and group different species or populations based on genetic variance and significance for protection.

Conservation units are often identified using both neutral and non-neutral genetic markers, with each having its own advantages. Using neutral markers during unit identification can provide unbiased assumptions of genetic drift and time since reproductive isolation within and among species and populations, while using non-neutral markers can provide more accurate estimations of adaptive evolutionary divergence, which can help determine the potential for a conservation unit to adapt within a certain habitat.

Because of conservation units, populations and species that have high or differing levels of genetic variation are can be distinguished in order to manage each individually, which can ultimately differ based on a number of factors.

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